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Konstnärskap i samspel: : om skapande arbetsprocesser i myndighetsledda samverkansprojekt
Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5058-2841
2015 (Swedish)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)Alternative title
Artists in interaction: creation processes in official collaborative projects : Creation processes in official collaborative projects (English)
Abstract [en]

Artists in interaction: creation processes in official collaborative projects is a doctoral thesis that explores the creation processes of artists, when the project owner defines the purpose, theme and framework. The area is explored from the artists' perspective and the overall research question deals with the opportunities and obstacles that artists face when working in collaborative projects.

To be able to explore the artists' working processes, in which sketches and models were tools, concepts from the visual research field were combined with knowledge theories that derive from the area of practice-based research. The knowledge theories draw on an updated understanding of ancient philosophy developed by, among others, the philosopher Martha Nussbaum. Rudolf Arnheim’s concepts of visual thinking are also vital for the interpretation of the visuals.

The results indicate that skills in different sketching techniques build trust and enable communication. However, the artists experienced that it was more difficult to integrate the more indefinable parts of their knowledge, which relates to improvisation and intuition, even though this was highlighted as the most vital force in their working processes. The consequence is that the artists have not always followed their artistic intentions, which in some cases also meant compromising the quality of the works of art  they produced. The collaboration between the artists and the project-owner representatives could be more enriching for both parties if the artists' implicit knowledge is respected as a resource and given some room, although this may involve certain risks.

The study also provides results regarding the interpretation of models and sketches, and discusses in what way different sketches can support (or hinder) communication in different stages of a design process, i.e. what aspects are important to consider when sketches are used to support communication. Particularly interesting is that the findings demonstrate that spoken and written language has a significant impact on how sketches are interpreted; the use of verbal language is therefore an important factor in presentations built on visuals.

Abstract [sv]

Avhandlingen Konstnärskap i samspel: om skapande arbetsprocesser i myndighetsledda samverkansprojekt undersöker konstnärers arbetsprocesser i projekt där uppdragsgivaren formulerat tema, syfte och ramar för gestaltningsarbetet. Genom tre fallstudier har konstnärers arbetsprocesser i samverkansprojekt, med inriktning på utställning och gestaltning i musei- och kulturmiljö undersökts. Den övergripande frågeställningen behandlar vilka möjligheter och begränsningar konstnärer upplever i sin praktik i myndighetsledda samverkansprojekt.

Materialet till studien har samlats in via intervjuer, observationer, artefakter och dokument. Till artefakter räknas skisser, modeller och verk. För att undersöka konstnärernas arbetsprocesser, där olika typer av skisser är ett verktyg, har teorier från det visuella fältet kombinerats med teorier om praktisk kunskap. Från det visuella fältet är Rudolf Arnheims teorier om visuellt tänkande centrala och vad gäller kunskapsteorier är utgångspunkten en samtida tolkning av Aristoteles teori om olika kunskapsformer som utvecklats av bland andra filosofen Martha Nussbaum.

På en övergripande nivå visar studien att skicklighet i hantering av olika skisstekniker möjliggör kommunikation och skapar förtroende, medan mer svårbeskrivbara delar av konstnärers kunnande med improvisation och intuition som vitala krafter är svårare att integrera i samverkansprojekten. Följden av detta är att konstnärerna inte alltid valt att genomdriva sina intentioner i projekten till fullo, vilket i ett par fall också inneburit avkall på gestaltningens kvalitet. Samverkan mellan offentliga uppdragsgivare och representanter från den kreativa sektorn (som konstnärerna i projekten representerar), skulle kunna bli mer berikande för båda parter om konstnärers implicita kunnande ses som en resurs och om uppdragsgivaren ger utrymme för improvisation, även om detta innebär visst risktagande.

Studien förmedlar också ny empiribaserad kunskap beträffande olika skiss- och presentationsformers funktion i kommunikationsakten mellan konstnär (skissproducent) och uppdragsgivare (beställare). Detta kan komma till nytta i flera sammanhang där skissmaterial används vid presentationer av idéer, i kommunikationen med en beställare eller som ett verktyg i grupprocesser. Intressant nog demonstrerar resultaten också att talat och skrivet språk har stor inverkan på hur skisser tolkas. Därför är detta en viktig aspekt att beakta i presentationer som inkluderar visuella material, både för skissproducent och beställare.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University , 2015.
Series
Mälardalen University Press Dissertations, ISSN 1651-4238 ; 179
Keyword [en]
Creative work processes, collaborative projects, sketches, models, presentation, practical knowledge, visual communication
Keyword [sv]
Skapande arbetsprocesser, samverkans projekt, skiss, modell, presentation, praktisk kunskap, visuell kommunikation
National Category
Design Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
Innovation and Design
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-27899ISBN: 978-91-7485-209-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-27899DiVA: diva2:807934
Public defence
2015-06-12, L 249, Mälardalens högskola, Eskilstuna, 14:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-04-27 Created: 2015-04-26 Last updated: 2015-05-18Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Från idé till gestaltningsförslag: fallstudie från Projekt Konstpaus
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Från idé till gestaltningsförslag: fallstudie från Projekt Konstpaus
2010 (Swedish)Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Populär sammanfattning

I vårt samhälle finns många offentliga konstverk. Dessa verk har kommit till på olika sätt men gemensamt är att konstverken i de allra flesta fall upphandlats med utgångspunkt i någon form av skiss. Skissen föregår det kommande konstverket och tjänar som underlag för beslut om upphandling av verket i full skala. Kunskapen om hur skisser kan tydas varierar och dessutom förekommer flera typer av skisser som var för sig fordrar olika sorters insikter av betraktaren (beslutsfattaren) för att kunna tolkas. Det övergripande temat för avhandlingen är kommunikationsprocesserna i relation till utvecklingen av 12 konstnärers gestaltningsförslag, tävlingsbidrag, samt hur juryns bedömning av dessa ser ut. Studien är baserad på material insamlat från de deltagande konstnärernas processer i Projekt Konstpaus, ett projekt delfinansierat av EU. Syftet med studien är att öka förståelsen för hur konstnärer utformar sina gestaltningsförslag, samt hur dessa förslag används och värderas. För att göra detta har tävlingsbidragen analyserats och konstnärerna intervjuats. Konstnärliga gestaltningsprocesser har synliggjorts liksom kommunikationen mellan beställare och konstnär.Bland annat har det framkommit att det finns en större potential att förmedla ett komplext gestaltningsinnehåll till en jury med stöd av digitala skisser, än vid användande av traditionella skisser. Det har visat sig att det kommande konstverkets kvaliteter blir synliga, men också att de brister som finns i gestaltningen tydliggörs i 3D- skisserna. Liksom teknologier tidigare i historien haft sin påverkan på bildutvecklingen, tolkningen och seendet har också övergången till digitala skisstekniker denna inverkan. Det har också visat sig att den text som tillhör respektive tävlingsbidrag haft avgörande betydelse för utfallet av jurybedömningen. Muntliga och skriftliga presentationer, bilagor och brev har påverkat juryn i sina beslut.Studien har också visat hur konstnärer kan tolka och förmedla resultat av en inventering och genom sina skisser förmedla dessa tolkningar. Konsten som tolkare av miljö, tid och tanke, kan gestalta information om en plats och i och med detta också fungera värnande för ett samhälles identitet i olika faser av en utveckling.Studien har bidragit med en djupare inblick i konstnärliga gestaltningsprocesser och hur de kan beskrivas samt i och med detta också en fördjupad förståelse i allmänhet av kreativa processer.

Abstract [en]

Abstract

The overall intention of this research project is to increase knowledge regarding design processes in general and artists' design processes specifically. The research is carried out as a case study based on the sketch processes that took place within Projekt Konstpaus (The Art Break Project). The sketches, or suggested designs, are the main objective for analysis and consideration in this study.

Projekt Konstpaus (The Art Break Project) is a development pro­ject partially financed by the European Union (EU). The vision of the project embodied equality, multiculturalism and sustainable community development. The municipality of Strängnäs, Sweden was the leading partner in the project and provided the necessary support for the project idea, financing and infrastructure. The innovative aim of the project was to have various groups of people from different backgrounds working together in the same processes. The project team consisted of several artists and people with university educations, such as archaeologists, cultural geographers, biologists and geologists. The main objective of the project team was to provide the basis for the construction of a culturally inspired walking and bicycle path. Several rest spots/rest stops (“konstpauser”) designed with artistic cha­racter and influenced primarily by the municipality’s extensive nature/cul­tural heritage will be found along the path (which has been approved for construction). One initial task of the project team was to make an inventory of the nature and culture artifacts within the project area as a means of promoting na­ture/culture preservation for the benefit of future generations through information sharing. The walking/bicycle path will be accessible to all, with special provision for physically challenged individuals. The intention is to provide an environment for both quietude and physical recreation.

The artists within the project embedded their artistic interpretations of the inventory and communicated them by suggesting artistic designs (sketches) related to the planned path. A jury then considered the sketches. Sketch, text, models and jury decisions (regarding the designs) are the objective of this research. The analysis of the material (sketches, texts, models and jury decisions, both oral and written) exposes the artistic processes. It is also the key to understanding the messages the artists intend to convey through their suggested designs. It is important to realize the significance (specific characteristics) of different types of sketches to be able to make decisions based on sketch materials. When sketches are examined, this awareness is central to making the right decision. In this study, three different types of sketches are examined, and the reading of each type is discussed.

When studying the suggested designs, insight was gained regarding the differences between using computer-aided design and traditional sketch tools. Knowledge was also increased concerning the development of sketch techniques generally, and when using computers specifically. A dualism of sight and seeing in terms of the visualization of an idea exists, and it is discussed in the light of empirical examples. It is also placed in relation to important technological steps taken earlier in history. The use of Camera Obcura as a helpful tool for composition is one such step. The use of this tool impacted on how the inner view was changed and, with that, manners of expression as well. This is seen in the composition of paintings and the use of language. Our thinking is influenced by what we see, and that, in turn, influences our thoughts. In our contemporary western paradigm, our commonly-held definition of "seeing" is influenced by computer-gained visual representations and the processes used when producing them. The study confirms that while this particular type of sketch exposes the suggested design idea a bit clearer than traditional sketches, it also reveals errors in the suggested designs. I have also found that both written and spoken language routes the interpretation of sketch material. In terms of understanding how the suggested designs are chosen by a jury, this component (the spoken or written language) was seen in the empirical material revealed in this study. It was also theoretically confirmed.

Together with an overall insight into the artistic processes, this study confirms the possibility of using artists in a development process. In this project, the process was to promote na­ture and culture preservation. It is valuable to integrate diverse areas of knowledge in the same process. This is true in both a social and an environmental sense. Finally, findings in this analysis confirm that artists are able to convey messages through their suggested designs (sketches). Those messages include interpretations of place, space, history and findings related to the project area.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University, 2010. 178 p.
Series
Mälardalen University Press Licentiate Theses, ISSN 1651-9256 ; 126
Keyword
Sketch, interpretation, art and design processes, spatial planning, sustainable development, EU, and Projekt Konstpaus (The Art Break Project)., Skiss, analys, tolkning, visuell kommunikation, konst- och designprocesser, fysisk planering, hållbar utveckling, gestaltning, kultur- och naturarv, informationsdesign, Projekt Konstpaus, EU.
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Communication Studies Cultural Studies Computer Vision and Robotics (Autonomous Systems)
Research subject
Innovation and Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-10679 (URN)978-91-86135-97-3 (ISBN)
Presentation
2010-12-10, Centrum för produktrealisering L348, Smedjegatan 12, Eskilstuna, 10:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2010-11-15 Created: 2010-11-01 Last updated: 2015-04-27Bibliographically approved
2. Idea exchange and shared understanding: Tools stimulating thought and conveying ideas
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Idea exchange and shared understanding: Tools stimulating thought and conveying ideas
2011 (English)In: Design principles and practices: An international journal, ISSN 1833-1874, Vol. 5, no 4, 487-502 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The topic of this paper is the use of sketching when exchanging shape visions. Attaining a shared understanding in a collaborative design project is examined. The interaction acts of an industrial design team at a renowned design firm in Stockholm are analyzed, as well as where the idea development session is situated. The interaction in itself could function as the prevalent means of describing and mediating creative idea development in groups. The basic intent of bringing together individuals who hold divergent notions is the creative tension this meeting may bring forth. There seems to be an inevitable gap between designers' ways of forming and expressing opinions concerning aesthetic ideas and their use of verbal language. The concepts 'verbal overshadowing' and ‘figurative arguing' are considered, as well as ‘the power of the board'. These phenomena influence the session's creative potential. The interpretation of the different types of sketches used by the team is focused on, as a means of understanding the significance of each type and the impact on idea development. Based on this study, several recommendations for establishing effective idea exchange and supporting evolving shared understanding (i.e., a group idea) are presented.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Innovation and Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-13662 (URN)
Available from: 2011-12-15 Created: 2011-12-15 Last updated: 2015-04-27Bibliographically approved
3. The relationship between a model and a full-size object or building: The perception and interpretation of models
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The relationship between a model and a full-size object or building: The perception and interpretation of models
2011 (English)In: ICED 11 - 18th International Conference on Engineering Design: Impacting Society Through Engineering Design, 2011, 194-203 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

There is a naive belief in models as a blueprint for objects and environments that goes back to the epistemology of The Enlightenment. In the manufacturing industry and in society, many decisions concerning new products or urban planning are based on models representing the actual object or area. Substantial experience is required to interpret models, especially when it comes to the effect different scales have on material, colors and volume. This paper will address theoretical aspects of our ability to interpret and understand the relationship between 3D-models on computer screens or constructions of models and the object in full scale.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Innovation and Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-13534 (URN)2-s2.0-84858827092 (Scopus ID)978-190467027-8 (ISBN)
Conference
18th International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED 11; Copenhagen; 15 August 2011 through 18 August 2011
Available from: 2011-12-15 Created: 2011-12-15 Last updated: 2015-04-27Bibliographically approved
4. Designing a Model of the Unknown: Artistic Impact in a Chain of Skilled Decisions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Designing a Model of the Unknown: Artistic Impact in a Chain of Skilled Decisions
2012 (English)In: Proceedings of the 12th International Design Conference DESIGN 2012, vol. 3 / [ed] Marjanovic Dorian, Storga Mario, Pavkovic Neven, Bojcetic Nenad, 2012, 1977-1986 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Innovation and Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-17287 (URN)978-953-7738-17-4 (ISBN)978-953-7738-20-4 (ISBN)
Conference
12th International Design Conference, 21-24 May, 2012 Dubrovnik, Croatia
Available from: 2012-12-20 Created: 2012-12-20 Last updated: 2015-04-27Bibliographically approved
5. Collaboration for the Improvement of Tolerance: Artistic Practice in a Societal Context
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Collaboration for the Improvement of Tolerance: Artistic Practice in a Societal Context
2013 (English)In: The International Journal of the Arts in Society, ISSN 1833-1866Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Abstract: This study is carried out in connection with The Living History Forum (LHF), a Swedish public authority that uses the Holocaust and other crimes against humanity as a starting point for exhibitions and other activities focused on tolerance, democracy and human rights. The case study concerns a project in which artists were asked to read the report The Many Faces of Intolerance as an inspiration for their own creative power (Löwander, B & Lange, A, 2011). The explicit idea from the assigner LHF was to create – through art installations – a stimulating environment for reflection, discussion and learning. The interaction between the visitors and the suggested art pieces was in focus. The purpose of this study is to look into artists’ ability to reflect upon and mediate perspectives and messages in a collaborative process. Practice-based research, with a focus on exploring, elucidating and benefitting practical experiences from the investigated area, is our methodological starting point. In terms of theory, the research field draws upon an understanding of ancient philosophy developed by, among others, the philosopher Martha Nussbaum. The thoughts originate from Aristotle's analysis of the different aspects of knowledge, with the concepts techne (practical-producing) and phronesis. Phronesis is the Aristotelian concept that combines the capabilities of thinking ethically and considering actions that can deliver desired effects. This study demonstrates that it is crucial that the assigner have the patience and ability to accept (and even encourage) some uncertainties during the process. The reason for that is to gain the often implicit and not pre-formulated practical knowledge of the artists.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Common Ground Publisher, 2013
Keyword
Practical knowledge, Collaborative projects, Artistry, Museology, and Reflection.
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-23303 (URN)ISSN: 2326-9960 (ISBN)
Projects
Communicating Contemporaries and Connections. To interpret and communicate cultural heritage in transnational times
Available from: 2013-12-15 Created: 2013-12-10 Last updated: 2015-04-27Bibliographically approved

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