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Optimal Control of Electrified Powertrains
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Vehicle powertrain electrification, i.e. combining the internal combustion engine (ICE) with an electric motor (EM), is a potential way of meeting the increased demands for efficient and low emission transportation, at a price of increased powertrain complexity since more degrees of freedom (DoF) have been introduced. Optimal control is used in a series of studies of how to best exploit the additional DoFs.

In a diesel-electric powertrain the absence of a secondary energy storage and mechanical connection between the ICE and the wheels means that all electricity used by the EMs needs to be produced simultaneously by the ICE, whose rotational speed is a DoF. This in combination with the relatively slow dynamics of the turbocharger in the ICE puts high requirements on good transient control. In optimal control studies, accurate models with good extrapolation properties are needed. For this aim two nonlinear physics based models are developed and made available that fulfill these requirements, these are also smooth in the region of interest, to enable gradient based optimization techniques. Using optimal control and one of the developed models, the turbocharger dynamics are shown to have a strong impact on how to control the powertrain and neglecting these can lead to erroneous estimates both in the response of the powertrain as well as how the powertrain should be controlled. Also the objective, whether time or fuel is to be minimized, influences the engine speed-torque path to be used, even though it is shown that the time optimal solution is almost fuel optimal. To increase the freedom of the powertrain control, a small energy storage can be added to assist in the transients. This is shown to be especially useful to decrease the response time of the powertrain, but the manner it is used, depends on the time horizon of the optimal control problem.

The resulting optimal control solutions are for certain cases oscillatory when stationary controls would have been expected. This is shown to be neither an artifact of the discretization used nor a result of the modeling assumptions used. Instead it is for the formulated problems actually optimal to use periodic control in certain stationary operating points. Measurements show that the pumping torque is different depending on whether the controls are periodic or constant despite the same average value. Whether this is beneficial or not depends on the operating point and control frequency, but can be predicted using optimal periodic control theory.

In hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) the size of the energy storage reduces the impact of poor transient control, since the battery can compensate for the slower dynamics of the ICE. For HEVs the problem instead is how and when to use the battery to ensure good fuel economy. An adaptive map-based equivalent consumption minimization strategy controller using battery state of charge for feedback control is designed and tested in a real vehicle with good results, even when the controller is started with poor initial values. In a plug-in HEV (PHEV) the battery is even larger, enabling all-electric drive, making it it desirable to use the energy in the battery during the driving mission. A controller is designed and implemented for a PHEV Benchmark and is shown to perform well even for unknown driving cycles, requiring a minimum of future knowledge.

Abstract [sv]

Elektrifiering av drivlinan i fordon är ett sätt att möta kraven på transporter med hög effektivitet och låga utsläpp. Att byta ut förbränningsmotorn mot en elmotor kan ge vinningar avseende effektivitet, prestanda och utsläpp, men till en kostnad av lägre mobilitet på grund av eletriska energilagers relativt låga energitäthet i jämförelse med fossila bränslen. Att istället komplettera förbränningsmotorn med en elmotor erbjuder möjligheten att kombinera de två systemens fördelar och samtidigt undvika nackdelarna.

Att använda mer än en motor i drivlinan ökar komplexiteten eftersom fler frihetsgrader har introducerats. Detta ställer ökade krav på utformningen av reglersystemet för att få ut det mesta av potentialen i drivlinan. I optimal styrning använder man matematiska modeller och optimeringsalgoritmer för att beräkna hur man bäst styr det modellerade systemet. Storleken på det elektriska energilagret påverkar dock valet av optimal styrnings-metod samt vilken detaljnivå på modellerna som behövs. I avhandlingen används optimal styrning i en serie studier av hur man bäst utnyttjar de extra frihetsgraderna som elektrifieringen har introducerat.

I en diesel-elektrisk drivlina finns det ingen mekanisk koppling mellan motorn och hjulen, likt en växellåda i ett vanligt fordon, vilket gör att dieselmotorns varvtal är en frihetsgrad som måste styras. Avsaknaden av elektriskt energilager leder också till att all elektrisk energi till elmotorn måste produceras av förbränningsmotorn exakt då den behövs. Dessa två egenskaper, i kombination med den långsamma dynamiken hos turboaggregatet, ställer detta höga krav på god transientreglering. För att studera optimal styrning krävs bra modeller med goda extrapoleringsegenskaper. Med avseende på detta utvecklas två fysik-baserade modeller som uppfyller dessa krav och dessutom är tillräckligt glatta i det relevanta arbetsområdet för att möjliggöra gradient-baserade optimeringstekniker. Med optimal styrning och en av de utvecklade modellerna visas turbons dynamik ha stor påverkan på hur drivlinan bör styras. Att försumma turbodynamiken kan leda till felaktiga uppskattningar, både av drivlinans responstid, men även hur den bör styras. Kriteriet, det vill säga om bränsle eller tidsåtgången minimeras, påverkar också vilken motorvarvtal-motormoment-väg som är optimal, även om det visas att den tidsoptimala lösningen är nästan bränsleoptimal. För att ytterligare öka frihetsgraden i drivlinan kan ett elektriskt energilager användas för att assistera i transienterna. Detta visar sig vara särskilt användbart för att minska responstiden hos drivlinan, men hur det ska använda beror på tidshorisonten på optimeringsproblemet

De resulterande optimala styrsignalerna är i vissa fall oscillerande där konstanta styrsignaler förväntas. Detta visas vara vare sig en effekt av den använda diskretiseringen eller modelleringsvalen som är gjorda. Istället är det för de lösta problemen faktiskt optimalt att använda periodiska styrsignaler för vissa stationära arbetspunkter. I experiment visas att pumparbetet skiljer sig beroende på om periodiska eller konstanta styrsignaler används, även om medelvärdet är detsamma. Huruvida detta ökar effektiviteten eller inte beror på arbetspunkt och periodtid.

För hybridelektriska fordon (HEV) så minskar batteriets storlek effekten av dålig transientreglering då batteriet kan användas för att kompensera för den långsamma förbränningsmotordynamiken. Istället blir problemet i huvudsak hur mycket och när batteriet ska användas för att få god bränsleekonomi. En adaptiv mapp-baserad ekvivalentförbruknings-minimerande styrlag (ECMS) med återkopplad reglering baserad på batteriets laddningsnivå, utvecklas och testas i riktigt fordon med gott resultat, även vid dålig initialisering av regulatorn.

För plug-in hybrider (PHEV) är batteriet större och kan dessutom laddas från elnätet, vilket medför möjlighet till rent elektrisk drift och att det är önskvärt att använda energin i batteriet under köruppdraget. För att minska energiåtgången är det däremot ofta lönsamt att blanda energin från bränsle och batteriet kontinuerligt under köruppdraget och se till att batteriet töms lagom till slutet av köruppdraget. För att åstadkomma detta måste då även urladdningstakten bestämmas. En regulator utvecklas för att minimera energiåtgången för en PHEV, det vill säga som försöker använda lagom av batteriet så det ska räcka hela vägen, men inte längre. Denna regulator implementeras för ett referensproblem, med gott resultat även för okända körcykler, trots ett minimum av framtidskunskap.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2015. , 284 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1661
Keyword [en]
Optimal Control, Diesel-Electric, Hybrid Electric Vehicles
National Category
Control Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117290DOI: 10.3384/diss.diva-117290ISBN: 978-91-7519-092-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-117290DiVA: diva2:807029
Public defence
2015-06-05, Visionen, Hus B, Campus Valla, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-05-20 Created: 2015-04-22 Last updated: 2015-05-20Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Optimal Transient Control Trajectories in Diesel-Electric Systems-Part I: Modeling, Problem Formulation, and Engine Properties
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimal Transient Control Trajectories in Diesel-Electric Systems-Part I: Modeling, Problem Formulation, and Engine Properties
2015 (English)In: Journal of engineering for gas turbines and power, ISSN 0742-4795, E-ISSN 1528-8919, Vol. 137, no 2, 021601Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A nonlinear four state-three input mean value engine model (MVEM), incorporating the important turbocharger dynamics, is used to study optimal control of a diesel-electric powertrain during transients. The optimization is conducted for the two criteria, minimum time and fuel, where both engine speed and engine power are considered free variables in the optimization. First, steps from idle to a target power are studied and for steps to higher powers the controls for both criteria follow a similar structure, dictated by the maximum torque line and the smoke-limiter. The end operating point, and how it is approached is, however, different. Then, the power transients are extended to driving missions, defined as, that a certain power has to be met as well as a certain energy has to be produced. This is done both with fixed output profiles and with the output power being a free variable. The time optimal control follows the fixed output profile even when the output power is free. These solutions are found to be almost fuel optimal despite being substantially faster than the minimum fuel solution with variable output power. The discussed control strategies are also seen to hold for sequences of power and energy steps.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), 2015
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-114415 (URN)10.1115/1.4028359 (DOI)000348050800006 ()
Available from: 2015-03-02 Created: 2015-02-20 Last updated: 2017-12-04
2. Optimal Transient Control Trajectories in Diesel-Electric Systems-Part II: Generator and Energy Storage Effects
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimal Transient Control Trajectories in Diesel-Electric Systems-Part II: Generator and Energy Storage Effects
2015 (English)In: Journal of engineering for gas turbines and power, ISSN 0742-4795, E-ISSN 1528-8919, Vol. 137, no 2, 021602Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The effects of generator model and energy storage on the optimal control of a diesel-electric powertrain in transient operation are studied. Two different types of problems are solved, minimum fuel and minimum time, with different generator models and limits as well as with an extra energy storage. For this aim, a four-state mean value engine model (MVEM) is used together with models for the generator and energy storage losses. In the optimization both the engines output power and speed are free variables. The considered transients are steps from idle to target power with different amounts of freedom, defined as requirements on produced energy, before the requested power has to be met. The main characteristics are seen to be independent of generator model and limits; they, however, shift the peak efficiency regions and therefore the stationary points. For minimum fuel transients, the energy storage remains virtually unused for all requested energies, for minimum time it is used to reduce the response time. The generator limits are found to have the biggest impact on the fuel economy, whereas an energy storage could significantly reduce the response time. The possibility to reduce the response time is seen to hold for a large range of values of energy storage parameters. The minimum fuel solutions remain unaffected when changing the energy storage parameters, implying it is not beneficial to use an energy storage if fuel consumption is to be minimized. Close to the minimum time solution, the fuel consumption with low required energy is quite sensitive to variations in duration, for larger energies it is not. Near the minimum fuel solution changes in duration have only minor effects on the fuel consumption.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), 2015
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-114416 (URN)10.1115/1.4028360 (DOI)000348050800007 ()
Available from: 2015-03-02 Created: 2015-02-20 Last updated: 2017-12-04
3. Turbocharger Dynamics Influence on Optimal Control of Diesel Engine Powered Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Turbocharger Dynamics Influence on Optimal Control of Diesel Engine Powered Systems
2014 (English)In: SAE International Journal of Engines, ISSN 1946-3936, Vol. 7, no 1, 6-13 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The importance of including turbocharger dynamics in diesel engine models are studied, especially when optimization techniques are to be used to derive the optimal controls. This is done for two applications of diesel engines where in the first application, a diesel engine in wheel loader powertrain interacts with other subsystems to perform a loading operation and engine speed is dictated by the wheel speed, while in the second application, the engine operates in a diesel-electric powertrain as a separate system and the engine speed remains a free variable. In both applications, mean value engine models of different complexities are used while the rest of system components are modeled with the aim of control study. Optimal control problems are formulated, solved, and results are analyzed for various engine loading scenarios in the two applications with and without turbocharger dynamics. It is shown that depending on the engine loading transients, fuel consumption and operation time can widely vary when the turbocharger dynamics are considered in the diesel engine model. Including these, have minor effects on fuel consumption and operation time at minimum fuel operations of the first application (~0.1 %) while the changes are considerable in the second application (up to 60%). In case of minimum time operations however, fuel consumption and operation time are highly affected in both applications implying that not considering turbocharger dynamics in the diesel engine models may lead to overestimation of the engine performance especially when the results are going to be used for control purposes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SAE International, 2014
National Category
Control Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117316 (URN)10.4271/2014-01-0290 (DOI)
Available from: 2015-04-23 Created: 2015-04-23 Last updated: 2016-05-30
4. Optimal and real-time control potential of a diesel-electric powertrain
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimal and real-time control potential of a diesel-electric powertrain
2014 (English)In: Proceedings of the 19th World CongressThe International Federation of Automatic ControlCape Town, South Africa. August 24-29, 2014 / [ed] Edward Boje and Xiaohua Xia, Cape Town: International Federation of Automatic Control , 2014, Vol. 19, 4825-4830 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Real-time control strategies and their performance related to the optimal control trajectories for a diesel-electric powertrain in transient operation are studied. The considered transients are steps from idle to target power. A non-linear four state-three input mean value engine model, incorporating the important turbocharger dynamics, is used for this study. The strategies are implemented using the SAE J1939-standard for engine control and evaluated compared to both the optimal solution and the solution when the engine is restricted to follow its stationary optimal line. It is shown that with the control parameters tuned for a specific criteria both engine control strategies in the SAE J1939-standard, speed control and load control, can achieve almost optimal results, where engine load controlled shows a better trade-off between fuel economy and duration. The controllers are then extended and it is shown that it is possible to control the powertrain in a close to optimal way using the SAE J1939-standard, both with the engine speed and load controlled. However the mode where the engine is load controlled is seen to be more robust.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cape Town: International Federation of Automatic Control, 2014
Series
World Congress, ISSN 1474-6670 ; Volume 19, Part 1
Keyword
Nonlinear and optimal automotive control; Control architectures in automotive control; Engine modelling and control
National Category
Control Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117333 (URN)10.3182/20140824-6-ZA-1003.01969 (DOI)978-3-902823-62-5 (ISBN)
Conference
The 19th World Congress The International Federation of Automatic Control Cape Town, South Africa. August 24-29, 2014
Available from: 2015-04-23 Created: 2015-04-23 Last updated: 2015-05-20Bibliographically approved
5. Modeling for Optimal Control: A Validated Diesel-Electric Powertrain Model
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling for Optimal Control: A Validated Diesel-Electric Powertrain Model
2014 (English)In: Proceedings of the 55th Conference on Simulation and Modelling (SIMS 55), Modelling, Simulation and Optimization, 21-22 October 2014, Aalborg, Denmark / [ed] Alireza Rezania Kolai, Kim Sørensen & Mads Pagh Nielsen, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2014, 49-58 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

An optimal control ready model of a diesel-electric powertrain is developed,validated and provided to the research community. The aim ofthe model is to facilitate studies of the transient control of diesel-electricpowertrains and also to provide a model for developers of optimizationtools. The resulting model is a four state three control mean valueengine model that captures the significant nonlinearity of the diesel engine, while still being continuously differentiable.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2014
Series
Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings, ISSN 1650-3686 (print), 1650-3740 (online) ; 108
National Category
Control Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117334 (URN)978-91-7519-376-2 (ISBN)
Conference
SIMS 2014 - 55th International Conference on Simulation and Modelling
Available from: 2015-04-23 Created: 2015-04-23 Last updated: 2015-05-20Bibliographically approved
6. An Optimal Control Benchmark: Transient Optimization of a Diesel-Electric Powertrain
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Optimal Control Benchmark: Transient Optimization of a Diesel-Electric Powertrain
2014 (English)In: Proceedings of the 55th International Conference on Simulation and Modelling (SIMS 55), 21-22 October, Modelling, Simulation and Optimization / [ed] Alireza Rezania Kolai, Kim Sørensen & Mads Pagh Nielsen, Linköping University Electronic Press, 2014, 59-63 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

An optimal control benchmark is presented and discussed. The benchmark is optimal transient control of a nonlinear four state three control model of a diesel-electric powertrain and constructed in such a manner that it is available in several versions to be of interest for developers of optimal control tools at different levels of development. This includes with and without time as a parameter as well as with and without time varying constraints.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping University Electronic Press, 2014
Series
Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings, ISSN 1650-3686 (print), 1650-3740 (online) ; 108
National Category
Control Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117335 (URN)978-91-7519-376-2 (ISBN)
Conference
SIMS 2014 - 55th International Conference on Simulation and Modelling, October 21-22, Aalborg, Denmark
Available from: 2015-04-23 Created: 2015-04-23 Last updated: 2015-05-20Bibliographically approved
7. Model and discretization impact on oscillatory optimal control for a diesel-electric powertrain
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Model and discretization impact on oscillatory optimal control for a diesel-electric powertrain
2015 (English)In: 4th IFAC Workshop on Engine and Powertrain Control, Simulation and Modeling E-COSM 2015 Columbus, Ohio, USA, 23-26 August 2015, Elsevier, 2015, Vol. 48(15), 66-71 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A mean value engine model is used to study optimal control of a diesel-electric powertrain. The resulting optimal controls are shown to be highly oscillating for certain operating points, raising the question whether this is an artifact of discretization, modeling choices or a phenomenon available in real engines. Several model extensions are investigated and their corresponding optimal control trajectories are studied. It is shown that the oscillating controls cannot be explained by the implemented extensions to the previously published model, nor by the discretization, showing that for certain operating points the optimal solution is periodic.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Series
IFAC-PapersOnLine, ISSN 2405-8963
National Category
Control Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117336 (URN)10.1016/j.ifacol.2015.10.010 (DOI)
Conference
4th IFAC Workshop on Engine and Powertrain Control, Simulation and Modeling E-COSM 2015 Columbus, Ohio, USA, 23-26 August 2015
Note

At the time for thesis presentation publication was in status: Manuscript

Available from: 2015-04-23 Created: 2015-04-23 Last updated: 2016-11-18Bibliographically approved
8. Optimal stationary control of diesel engines using periodic control
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimal stationary control of diesel engines using periodic control
2017 (English)In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part D, journal of automobile engineering, ISSN 0954-4070, E-ISSN 2041-2991, Vol. 231, no 4, 457-475 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Measurements and optimal control are used to study whether the fuel economy of a diesel engine can be improved through periodic control of the wastegate, illustrating how modern optimal control tools can be used to identify non-trivial solutions that can improve performance. The measurements show that the pumping torque of the engine is changed when the wastegate is controlled in a periodic manner versus stationary even if the mean position is the same. If this decreases the fuel consumption or not is seen to be frequency and operating point dependent. The measurements indicate that the phenomenon occurs in the time scales capturable by mean value engine models (MVEM). The operating points are further analyzed using a MVEM and optimal control. It is shown that whether the optimal solution exhibits periodic oscillations or not is operating point dependent, but is not due to the instantaneous nature of the controls. Even if an actuator model is added the oscillations persist for reasonable time constants, the frequency of the oscillations is however affected. Further it is shown that the periodic control can be predicted by optimal periodic control theory and that the frequency of the control affects the resulting efficiency.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2017
Keyword
Optimal periodic control, diesel engines, optimal control, internal combustion engines, wastegate control
National Category
Control Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117337 (URN)10.1177/0954407016640631 (DOI)000397211700002 ()2-s2.0-85014504643 (Scopus ID)
Note

At the time for thesis presentation publication was in status: Manuscript

Available from: 2015-04-23 Created: 2015-04-23 Last updated: 2017-04-20Bibliographically approved
9. Adaptive Control of a Hybrid Powertrain with Map-based ECMS
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adaptive Control of a Hybrid Powertrain with Map-based ECMS
2011 (English)In: Proceedings of the 18th IFAC World Congress, 2011 / [ed] Sergio Bittanti, Angelo Cenedese, Sandro Zampieri, 2011, 2949-2954 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

To fully utilize the fuel reduction potential of a hybrid powertrain requires a careful design of the energy management control algorithms. Here a controller is created using mapbased equivalent consumption minimization strategy and implemented to function without any knowledge of the future driving mission. The optimal torque distribution is calculated oine and stored in tables. Despite only considering stationary operating conditions and average battery parameters, the result is close to that of deterministic dynamic programming. Eects of making the discretization of the tables sparser are also studied and found to have only minor eects on the fuel consumption. The controller optimizes the torque distribution for the current gear as well as assists the driver by recommending the gear that would give the lowest consumption. Two ways of adapting the control according to the battery state of charge are proposed and investigated. One of the adaptive strategies is experimentally evaluated and found to ensure charge sustenance despite poor initial values.

Series
World Congress, ISSN 1474-6670 ; Volume 18, Part 1
Keyword
Hybrid Vehicles, Adaptive Control, Automotive Control, Optimal Control
National Category
Control Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-84957 (URN)10.3182/20110828-6-IT-1002.02091 (DOI)978-390266193-7 (ISBN)
Conference
18th IFAC World Congress; August 28-September 2, Milano; Italy
Available from: 2012-10-29 Created: 2012-10-29 Last updated: 2015-05-20Bibliographically approved
10. A control benchmark on the energy management of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A control benchmark on the energy management of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle
Show others...
2014 (English)In: Control Engineering Practice, ISSN 0967-0661, E-ISSN 1873-6939, Vol. 29, 287-298 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A benchmark control problem was developed for a special session of the IFAC Workshop on Engine and Powertrain Control, Simulation and Modeling (E-COSM 12), held in Rueil-Malmaison, France, in October 2012. The online energy management of a plug-in hybrid-electric vehicle was to be developed by the benchmark participants. The simulator, provided by the benchmark organizers, implements a model of the GM Voltec powertrain. Each solution was evaluated according to several metrics, comprising of energy and fuel economy on two driving profiles unknown to the participants, acceleration and braking performance, computational performance. The nine solutions received are analyzed in terms of the control technique adopted (heuristic rule-based energy management vs. equivalent consumption minimization strategies, ECMS), battery discharge strategy (charge depleting-charge sustaining vs. blended mode), ECMS implementation (vector-based vs. map-based), ways to improve the implementation and improve the computational performance. The solution having achieved the best combined score is compared with a global optimal solution calculated offline using the Pontryagins minimum principle-derived optimization tool HOT.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Pergamon Press, 2014
Keyword
Supervisory control; Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles; Energy management; Optimal control; Rule-based control
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-109361 (URN)10.1016/j.conengprac.2013.11.020 (DOI)000339133700026 ()
Available from: 2014-08-15 Created: 2014-08-15 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
11. Design and Evaluation of Energy Management using Map-Based ECMS for the PHEV Benchmark
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design and Evaluation of Energy Management using Map-Based ECMS for the PHEV Benchmark
2014 (English)In: Oil & gas science and technology, ISSN 1294-4475, E-ISSN 1953-8189, Vol. 70, no 1, 195-211 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) provide a promising way of achieving the benefits of the electric vehicle without being limited by the electric range, but they increase the importance of the supervisory control to fully utilize the potential of the powertrain. The winning contribution in the PHEV Benchmark organized by IFP Energies nouvelles is described and evaluated. The control is an adaptive strategy based on a map-based Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS) approach, developed and implemented in the simulator provided for the PHEV Benchmark. The implemented control strives to be as blended as possible, whilst still ensuring that all electric energy is used in the driving mission. The controller is adaptive to reduce the importance of correct initial values, but since the initial values affect the consumption, a method is developed to estimate the optimal initial value for the controller based on driving cycle information. This works well for most driving cycles with promising consumption results. The controller performs well in the benchmark; however, the driving cycles used show potential for improvement. A robustness built into the controller affects the consumption more than necessary, and in the case of altitude variations the control does not make use of all the energy available. The control is therefore extended to also make use of topography information that could be provided by a GPS which shows a potential further decrease in fuel consumption.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institut Francais du Petrole, 2014
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117268 (URN)10.2516/ogst/2014018 (DOI)000351444400013 ()
Available from: 2015-04-22 Created: 2015-04-21 Last updated: 2017-12-04

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