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Diagnostic strategies for blood borne infections in Sweden
Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro university , 2015. , 83 p.
Series
Örebro Studies in Medicine, ISSN 1652-4063 ; 124
Keyword [en]
blood borne infections, screening assays, blood donors, HIV, HTVL-1/2, Hepatitis C, Syphilis
National Category
Microbiology in the medical area
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-44303ISBN: 978-91-7529-080-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-44303DiVA: diva2:805995
Public defence
2015-05-29, Universitetssjukhuset, hörsal C1, Södra Grev Rosengatan, Örebro, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-04-17 Created: 2015-04-17 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Performance of three automated fourth-generation combined HIV antigen/antibody assays in large-scale screening of blood donors and clinical samples
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance of three automated fourth-generation combined HIV antigen/antibody assays in large-scale screening of blood donors and clinical samples
2009 (English)In: Transfusion Medicine, ISSN 0958-7578, E-ISSN 1365-3148, Vol. 19, no 2, 78-88 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Since the introduction in the mid-1980s, HIV testing has gradually improved both in terms of sensitivity and specificity. The so-called fourth generation of tests, combined HIV antigen/antibody assays, has now been introduced. This study compares three automated combined assays with older third-generation antibody assays in large-scale screening. Serum samples from routine screening of blood and plasma donors and clinical samples were investigated for specificity evaluation. Three fourth-generation combination assays from one manufacturer were compared with three older third-generation antibody assays from the same manufacturer. More than 40 000 samples per assay were included. For sensitivity, selected panels of confirmed HIV-1- and HIV-2-positive samples as well as seroconversion samples (HIV-1) from commercial panels and also from patients who appeared during the evaluation were used. The specificities of the fourth-generation tests were 99.91% (AxSYM), 99.95% (ARCHITECT) and 99.97% (PRISM) after repeated testing. Some specificity variation between reagent batches was observed. All HIV-1-positive samples were reactive by the three fourth-generation systems. HIV-1 seroconversion samples and panels were reactive earlier than by antibody-only tests. As for HIV-2 samples, AxSYM failed to detect one (n = 40), whereas PRISM and ARCHITECT detected all (n = 16 for PRISM and n = 52 for ARCHITECT). The new HIV antigen/antibody combination assay systems were found to have high sensitivity and specificity. The instruments provided a rational and easy way of testing at large scale.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Microbiology in the medical area
Research subject
Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-12085 (URN)10.1111/j.1365-3148.2009.00907.x (DOI)000265377900004 ()19320855 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-65249166119 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2010-10-05 Created: 2010-10-05 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
2. Prevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 and 2 infection in Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 and 2 infection in Sweden
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2012 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0036-5548, E-ISSN 1651-1980, Vol. 44, no 11, 852-9 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Prevalence data on human T-lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV-1/2) in Sweden have not been updated since 1995. The seroprevalence among blood donors at that time was 0.2/10,000. A few years earlier, a high prevalence of HTLV-2 was found in intravenous drug users (IDUs) in Stockholm (3.4%). The objective of this study was to update information on the seroprevalence of HTLV in several study groups.

METHODS: Serum samples from pregnant women, hepatitis C virus (HCV)-positive individuals, and IDUs in Stockholm were investigated for HTLV-1/2 antibodies. Data from the mandatory HTLV-1/2 screening (2003-2006) of in vitro fertilization (IVF) clients were compiled, as well as data from new blood donors.

RESULTS: Eight out of 35,000 IVF patients were positive for anti-HTLV-1/2 (seroprevalence 2.3 per 10,000). Of the anti-HCV-positive individuals (n = 355), 1 sample was HTLV-1-positive (28.2 per 10,000). From 1995 to 2007, 18 HTLV-positive new blood donors were identified out of approximately 550,000 individuals tested (0.3 per 10,000). Thirty-five of 1079 tested IDUs were screening reactive.

CONCLUSIONS: Since the start of screening in 1994, there has been no increased seroprevalence of HTLV-1/2 among blood donors in Sweden. Seroprevalence among Swedish IVF patients is 10 times higher than among blood donors. This finding is comparable to a 2003 European seroprevalence study of pregnant women in 7 countries. However, the possibility that the IVF group includes individuals with a higher risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections, including HTLV, than the general population cannot be ruled out.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Informa Healthcare, 2012
National Category
Microbiology in the medical area
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-44556 (URN)10.3109/00365548.2012.689847 (DOI)000310008900008 ()22803699 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84867752839 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-05-07 Created: 2015-05-07 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
3. Evaluation of a hepatitis C virus core antigen assay to monitor viral load in patients on antiviral therapy and in untreated patients
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of a hepatitis C virus core antigen assay to monitor viral load in patients on antiviral therapy and in untreated patients
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Keyword
Hepatitis C, HCVcoreAntigen, HCV-RNA, anti-viral therapy
National Category
Microbiology in the medical area
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-44557 (URN)
Available from: 2015-05-07 Created: 2015-05-07 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
4. Analytical evaluation of nine serological assays for diagnosis of syphilis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analytical evaluation of nine serological assays for diagnosis of syphilis
Show others...
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Microbiology in the medical area
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-44560 (URN)
Available from: 2015-05-08 Created: 2015-05-08 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved

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