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Live long and prosper: Health-promoting conditions at work
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this thesis is to contribute with knowledge concerning health-promoting conditions at work, and to investigate how individual, workplace and organisational conditions are interrelated. In the thesis, work-related flow, i.e. an experience of motivation, absorption and work enjoyment, is used as a holistic notion of occupational health. In Paper I, work-related flow is investigated in relation to decision latitude, social capital and an innovative learning climate at work. Paper II investigates whether the use of tools inspired by lean production, such as standardisation and value stream mapping, is positively associated with conditions for innovative learning in organisations. The aim of Paper III is to identify conditions for health and performance in organisation and at work; further, to investigate the association between work-related flow and performance. Paper IV reports on a longitudinal investigation of workrelated flow in relation to lean tool use and conditions at the workplace. The empirical material is based on data from 10 organisations, including 4442 employees. Papers I-III are cross-sectional, whereas Paper IV is longitudinal. Papers II-IV utilise multilevel analyses.

The results show that decision latitude, social capital and an innovative learning climate are associated with an increase in work-related flow (Papers I, III & IV), and with performance (Paper III). Individuals’ decision latitude enables an increased benefit from the social capital and innovative learning climate at work (Paper I). The effect of tools inspired by lean production on work-related flow (Papers III & IV), and on conditions for innovative learning (Paper II) differs, depending on which tools are used, and on workplace conditions. These tools enable innovative learning mainly where decision latitude is low (Paper II), and it is primarily the lean tool value stream mapping which has the potential to create an arena for innovative learning (Paper II) and work-related flow (Paper IV).

It is concluded that the individual is embedded in a social work context that has the potential to strengthen the ability to act with motivation, absorption and enjoyment. In order to utilise collective healthpromoting conditions at work, individuals need to have authority to make their own decisions and use their skills. The effect of tools inspired by lean production depends on the specific tools that are used, and on individuals’ decision latitude at work. Their potential to enable innovative learning is most evident for employees who  have few opportunities for autonomous decision-making and skill use in their work. For those with a high degree of decision latitude, the use of lean tools has a smaller effect. Work-related flow may in itself serve as a resource that improves performance and increases engagement in health-promoting work conditions. In order to promote health as well as performance, work needsto be organised so that employees have opportunities to decide over their own work, and utilise their skills, individually and collectively within the workgroup.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2015. , 72 p.
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1447
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Social Work Medical and Health Sciences Pedagogy
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117064DOI: 10.3384/diss.diva-117064ISBN: 978-91-7519-120-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-117064DiVA: diva2:805270
Public defence
2015-05-04, Hälsans Hus, Campus US, Linköping, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-04-15 Created: 2015-04-15 Last updated: 2015-04-30Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Experience of work-related flow: Does high decision latitude enhance benefits gained from job resources?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experience of work-related flow: Does high decision latitude enhance benefits gained from job resources?
2013 (English)In: Journal of Vocational Behavior, ISSN 0001-8791, E-ISSN 1095-9084, Vol. 83, no 2, 161-170 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Flow is an experience of enjoyment, intrinsic motivation and absorption, which may occur in situations involving high challenges and high skill utilization. This study investigated the likelihood of experiencing work-related flow in relation to the job strain categories of the demand–control model, and to job resources such as social capital and an innovative learning climate. A questionnaire was sent out to employees in nine Swedish organizations (n = 3667, 57% response rate). Binary logistic regression analysis was performed. The results show that active jobs, low-strain jobs, a high degree of social capital and innovative learning climate increased the likelihood of experiencing work-related flow. In jobs with high decision latitude, regardless of demands, there was an increased likelihood to benefit from social capital and an innovative learning climate. The results emphasize the importance of autonomy and skill utilization, to enable the use of additional job resources in order to promote work-related flow and well-being at work.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013
Keyword
Work-related flow, Job resources, Demand-control model, Employee health, Health promoting organizations, Innovative learning climate
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-95813 (URN)10.1016/j.jvb.2013.03.010 (DOI)000320484100005 ()
Available from: 2013-07-26 Created: 2013-07-26 Last updated: 2017-12-06
2. Lean production tools and decision latitude enable conditions for innovative learning in organizations: a multilevel analysis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lean production tools and decision latitude enable conditions for innovative learning in organizations: a multilevel analysis
Show others...
2015 (English)In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 47, 285-291 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The effect of lean production on conditions for learning is debated. This study aimed to investigate how tools inspired by lean production (standardization, resource reduction, visual monitoring, housekeeping, value flow analysis) were associated with an innovative learning climate and with collective dispersion of ideas in organizations, and whether decision latitude contributed to these associations. A questionnaire was sent out to employees in public, private, production and service organizations (n = 4442). Multilevel linear regression analyses were used. Use of lean tools and decision latitude were positively associated with an innovative learning climate and collective dispersion of ideas. A low degree of decision latitude was a modifier in the association to collective dispersion of ideas. Lean tools can enable shared understanding and collective spreading of ideas, needed for the development of work processes, especially when decision latitude is low. Value flow analysis played a pivotal role in the associations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keyword
psychosocial work conditions, job resources, learning climate
National Category
Other Health Sciences Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112552 (URN)10.1016/j.apergo.2014.10.013 (DOI)000347663600033 ()
Available from: 2014-12-02 Created: 2014-12-02 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
3. Associations between organisation of work, work conditions, work-relatedf low and performance: a multilevel analysis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Associations between organisation of work, work conditions, work-relatedf low and performance: a multilevel analysis
Show others...
2015 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study is to investigate how organisation of work in terms of sociotechnical characteristics and use of tools inspired by lean production, and psychosocial conditions at the workplace, are associated with work-related flow and performance.

A questionnaire including questions concerning work organisation, psychosocial work conditions, work-related flow and self-rated performance was sent to employees in ten Swedish organisations; 4442 people (56%) responded. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were used in order to investigate organisation of work and work conditions in relation to work-related flow and performance. In addition, the association between work-related flow and performance was investigated.

Our results show that a high degree of lean tool use in combination with a low degree of sociotechnical characteristics was negatively associated with work-related flow but positively associated with performance. When decision latitude, social capital, and innovative learning climate were included in the model, the association was no longer significant in relation to work-related flow, but remained and was strengthen in relation to performance. Work-related flow had a positive association with performance.

The conclusion is that work-related flow and work conditions that enable individual and collective skill use are important for increased performance. When lean tools are used to a high degree, good decision latitude, social capital and innovative learning climate buffer negative effects on health, and increase performance.

Keyword
Job resources; health; well-being; job design
National Category
Learning Work Sciences Other Medical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117062 (URN)
Available from: 2015-04-15 Created: 2015-04-15 Last updated: 2015-04-15Bibliographically approved
4. The effect of lean tool use and work conditions on employee health: a longitudinal multilevel study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of lean tool use and work conditions on employee health: a longitudinal multilevel study
2015 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Objectives: Although lean production is an increasingly common approach to increase the efficiency of organisations, its effect on employee health is not clear. This longitudinal study investigates the effect of lean tool use and work conditions on work-related flow. Flow is a measure of health that reflects the experience of intrinsic motivation, absorption and work enjoyment.

Methods: A questionnaire was sent to employees in seven organisations on two occasions with an interval of two years (n =1722). Multilevel linear regression analyses were used in order to investigate the association between the use of lean tools (i.e. standardisation, value stream mapping, visual monitoring, housekeeping and resource reduction), decision latitude, social capital, and innovative learning climate at baseline, and work-related flow at follow-up.

Results: In multivariate analyses, adjusted for flow at baseline, use of lean tools was positively associated with work-related flow at follow-up. When the tools were investigated separately, only value stream mapping remained significant after adjustment for work conditions and flow at baseline. Social capital and decision latitude were positively associated with flow at follow-up. Flow at baseline and follow-up were strongly associated.

Conclusions: The extent to which lean tool use has an effect on employee health depends on which tools are used. Work conditions that support learning, such as decision latitude and social capital, are associated with a longitudinal increase in the experience of work-related flow, and are important for gaining health-promoting benefits from the use of lean tools.

Keyword
Work-related flow, job resources, psychosocial work conditions, control, learning
National Category
Learning Work Sciences Other Medical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117063 (URN)
Available from: 2015-04-15 Created: 2015-04-15 Last updated: 2015-04-15Bibliographically approved

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