Regulation of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor Signaling and its Targeting in Cancer Therapy
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Overactivity of platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) is a frequent event in many types of solid tumors. Therefore, it is of great importance to uncover the mechanisms that regulate PDGF/PDGFR signalling, to develop efficient inhibitors targeting this pathway. The first step of downregulation of PDGFR activity upon ligand binding is internalization; thus we investigated how endocytosis pathways affect PDGFR signaling. We showed that in Ras-transformed fibroblasts, the internalization of PDGFR is shifted from the routine clathrin-dependent endocytosis to macropinocytosis, which results in enhanced PDGFR activity and subsequent downstream signalling, promoting anchorage-independent growth.
We were also interested in how intracellular trafficking regulates signalling attenuation of PDGFR. We found that His-domain containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (HD-PTP) positively regulates phosphorylation level of the ubiquitin-ligases c-Cbl and Cbl-b; consistently, silencing of HD-PTP led to a decreased level of PDGFR ubiquitination (paper II). Consequently, internalized PDGFR could not be sorted properly and escaped degradation. This resulted in enhanced activation of phospholipase C γ (PLCγ) and changed kinetics of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 signalling, which further increased colony formation of HD-PTP silenced cells in soft agar, indicating a tumor suppressor role of HD-PTP.
Activation of PDGFR leads to stimulation of downstream pathways. We identified Fer kinase as a critical signal transducer downstream of PDGFR in a proteomic screen. We showed that Fer kinase is essential for PDGF-induced STAT3 activation; as a result (paper III), Fer depletion severely blunted the ability of PDGFR signalling to promote anchorage-independent growth in soft agar and delayed tumor initiation in a mouse model.
The crosstalk between host and tumor plays a critical role in tumor progression. At present most anti-cancer drugs are targeting tumor cells; we were interested in how targeting tumor host cells affects the efficacy of anti-tumor therapy. We found that selective PDGFRβ inhibition in host cells exerted tumor inhibitory effects on growth and vascularization of tumors with autocrine PDGF signaling, whereas tumors lacking such stimulation show only minor response on tumor growth (paper IV). Meanwhile, we demonstrated that PDGF/PDGFRβ signalling promotes expression of NG2, a marker for pericytes.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2015. , 64 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 1092
PDGF, PDGFR, Ras, macropinocytosis, Fer, STAT3, HD-PTP, Cbl, ubiquitination, pericyte, vasculature, tumor, ASKA
Cell and Molecular Biology
Research subject Biology with specialization in Molecular Cell Biology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-248172ISBN: 978-91-554-9220-5OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-248172DiVA: diva2:799179
2015-05-20, B42, BMC, Husargatan 3, Uppsala, 09:15 (English)
Axelson, Håkan, Professor
List of papers