Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
New ways of learning: Participatory action research and Kenyan runners’ appropriation of smartphones to improve their daily lives and participation in m-learning
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)Alternative title
Nya vägar till lärande : Deltagande aktionsforskning kring kenyanska löpares appropriering av smarta telefoner i vardagen för mobilt lärande (Swedish)
Abstract [en]

In Kenya, mobile technology is widely used, with more and more people gaining access to the Internet. Mobile technology has the potential to support learning and improve lives, particular those of impoverished people. In this study, 30 Kenyan runners from poor backgrounds and with limited formal education participated. They were provided with a basic smartphone and Internet data bundles for one year so that they could participate in m-learning. The participatory action research approach was used. Sources of data included interviews, observations, fieldnotes, web inquiries, and mobile log files. A sociocultural perspective was used to analyze how the participants learned informally using the smartphones.

Findings indicate that the Kenyan runners’ rapid appropriation and mastery of the smartphones was based on their curiosity and interest in sports. The runners’ skills and knowledge increased over time, showing how digital resources improved their training, increased their social interactions, developed entrepreneurial skills, created awareness in and with the rest of society, and improved participation in m-learning. Sociocultural analysis showed that feedback from peers and the tool itself were both significant for learning. The participants themselves influenced the research process. From their interest emerged an online course (MOOC) about human rights. Key challenges in the process were power consumption, lack of electricity, and the availability and cost of Internet access. A lack of critical attitude about content on the Internet was also discernible. The main findings highlight how mobile technology can not only improve daily lives, but also develop new ways for people to participate in mlearning.

Abstract [sv]

I Kenya är användningen av mobilteknologi och Internet utbredd och ökar stadigt. Mobilteknik visar sig ha potential att öka medborgares intressen för lärande och kunskap, och därigenom förbättra livssituationen särskilt för fattiga människor. Den här studien syftade till att med deltagande aktionsforskning analysera hur sådana processer går till. I studien deltog 30 kenyanska löpare från fattiga förhållanden och med begränsad formell utbildning. Deltagarna utrustades med en enkel smartphone med fri surf under ett år och följdes med intervjuer, observationer, webbenkäter och mobilspårning. Deras lärandeprocesser analyserades ur ett sociokulturellt perspektiv om hur teknik tillägnas – approrieras – och används i vardagliga praktiker och utvecklar lärande.

Resultaten visade att de kenyanska löparna snabbt approprierade telefonerna och fann utifrån nyfikenhet och intresset för idrott olika sätt att använda dem. Kunskaper och färdigheter utvecklades över tid och de digitala resurserna förbättrade löparnas träning, ökade sociala interaktioner, utvecklade entreprenöriella färdigheter och nya synsätt på sina möjligheter i världen.

Den sociokulturella analysen visade även att feedback från andra deltagare och/eller av tekniken i sig hade betydelse för lärandet. Forskningsprocessen påverkades av deltagarna och utifrån deras intresse skapades en on-line kurs (MOOC) om Mänskliga rättigheter. Problem i studien var telefonens energiförbrukning, brist på elektricitet, tillgång till och kostnad för Internet samt deltagarnas kritiska förhållningssätt till Internet. Det övergripande resultatet är att mobilteknologi kan förbättra livsvillkor och skapa nya vägar till lärande.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2015. , 145 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Behavioural Science, ISSN 1654-2029 ; 189
Keyword [en]
Participatory action research, m-learning, sociocultural perspective
Keyword [sv]
Deltagande aktionsforskning, mobilt lärande, sociokulturellt perspektiv
National Category
Didactics Pedagogy Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-115804DOI: 10.3384/diss.diva-115804ISBN: 978-91-7519-124-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-115804DiVA: diva2:796739
Public defence
2015-04-24, I:101, Hus I, Campus Valla, Linköping, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-03-20 Created: 2015-03-20 Last updated: 2015-03-24Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Frontrunners in ICT: Kenyan runners’ improvement in training, informal learning and economic opportunities using smartphones
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Frontrunners in ICT: Kenyan runners’ improvement in training, informal learning and economic opportunities using smartphones
2014 (English)In: ijEDict - International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology, ISSN 1814-0556, E-ISSN 1814-0556, Vol. 10, no 4, 4-20 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The primary aim of this research was to study how mobile technology shapes, changes, and develops informal learning outside the classroom and school environment. In this study we provided each of the 30 Kenyan elite runners with a simple Android smartphone and free Internet for one year. This research project was a developmental intervention with a participatory action research approach, and aimed to facilitate innovation and examine how the runners developed their training, informal learning, and economic opportunities using a smartphone. Logs and tracking of smartphone usage recorded quantitative data, and interviews and participatory observations gathered qualitative data. Key findings were that the smartphone improved the runners’ training and race performance and created business opportunities. Second, a smartphone with an Internet connection empowered marginalized groups and augmented informal learning opportunities. Third, that a smartphone was not a significant technological hurdle for impoverished or uneducated individuals. Fourth, the participants were able to learn with little or no guidance or scaffolding. Fifth, the tracking log data indicated both a breadth and depth to individual learning. This participatory action research made a significant impact on the participants’ lives and the most common statement from the interviews was the statement “it helps us a lot”.

Keyword
Mobile learning; informal learning; smartphones; Kenyan runners; ICT4D; M4D
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-114854 (URN)
Available from: 2015-03-05 Created: 2015-03-05 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
2. mRunning: New Ways of Running in Kenya
Open this publication in new window or tab >>mRunning: New Ways of Running in Kenya
2015 (English)In: Journal of Sports Pedagogy and Physical Education, Vol. 6, no 1, 1-11 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper argues for new ways for Kenyan elite runners to use smartphones. The study focused on everyday use in social and professional practices to understand the interaction between smartphones, learning, and running. Thus, it was a specific example of how mobile technology can become integrated in existing practices, develop them, and become absorbed in daily routines. Thirty elite runners between the ages of 19 and 34 were provided with a simple smartphone in an intervention study that used a participatory action research approach (PAR) for a period of one and half years. The analysis was based on multiple sources of data and the Silverstone et al. (1992) Domestication of Technology Framework. The Kenyan runners in this study had limited educational background and low incomes, but smartphones with internet connectivity became a powerful catalyst for change. This project showed a distinct example of mRunning; considering the runners’ intensive use of the smartphones and their applications for running. The smartphones had an impact on their professions as runners and acted in a practice-building capacity. The runners were armed with better information about their own training, training programs, rehab information, health, race calendars, race venues, courses profiles, etc. Therefore, most of the runners in the study performed better in competitions. Smartphones were a substantial resource that made a significant impact on the Kenyan  runners’ daily practice and became an important and supportive tool for the runner to get out of poverty.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Common Ground Publishing, 2015
Keyword
ICT4D/M4D, Smartphones, Participatory Action Research
National Category
Interaction Technologies Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-115801 (URN)
Note

On the day of the defence day the status of this article was Manuscript.

Available from: 2015-03-20 Created: 2015-03-20 Last updated: 2015-04-01Bibliographically approved
3. Daily Usage of Smartphones: New Activities for Kenyan Elite Runners
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Daily Usage of Smartphones: New Activities for Kenyan Elite Runners
2016 (English)In: Journal of Mobile Technologies, Knowledge and Society, ISSN 2155-4811, E-ISSN 2155-4811, Vol. 2016, 469363Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper analyzes how a group of Kenyan elite runners used smartphones in their daily activities for one year. This study used a participatory action research approach to explore 30 young Kenyan runners’ appropriation and day-to-day use of smartphones. The runners lived in two different low-income areas in Nairobi and were not accustomed to smartphones. The research focused on how the participants utilized the smartphone, its applications, and the Web to improve their learning, training, living conditions, and social interactions. To investigate the participants’ progress, every smartphone was tracked and its usage was analyzed according to Koole’s (2009) FRAME model. Findings highlighted that new activities arose through frequent usage of the Web and smartphone applications. 180,000 different visits to websites were made and the most popular usage was searching with Google and Yahoo, entertainment, social media, news, and sports related websites. In total, 346,832 applications were used and the phone, launcher and contacts were the primary applications. However, the findings showed a significant use of communication, camera, native applications and applications for running. A concluding remark is that the smartphone acted as a powerful tool for real-life improvement such as improved learning, current events awareness and social interactions for poor people in a developing country.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Business Information Management Association (IBIMA), 2016
Keyword
ICT4D/M4D, smartphones, Kenya, social interaction, learning, running
National Category
Interaction Technologies Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-115803 (URN)10.5171/2016.469363 (DOI)
Note

The previous status on this article was Manuscript.

Available from: 2015-03-20 Created: 2015-03-20 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
4. Putting a MOOC for Human Rights in the hands of Kenyans: The Haki Zangu case for non-formal learning
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Putting a MOOC for Human Rights in the hands of Kenyans: The Haki Zangu case for non-formal learning
2014 (English)In: The Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, ISSN 1681-4835, Vol. 65, no 3, 1-17 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The research goal of this project was to explore the use and effects of non-formal education and incentives in the context of a developing country. The practical aim of this project was to create, implement, and evaluate a platform about human rights that was available to any Kenyan for free in order to increase knowledge and engagement. Therefore, a non-formal massive open online course (MOOC) about human rights was designed and launched. The course was free and open to anyone in Kenya and offered both a digital badge and certificate from Stockholm University in Sweden upon completion. The course was called Haki Zangu (Kiswahili for “My Rights”), and it explored how using incentives such as a digital badge and certificate of completion affected learning outcomes. This course offered ubiquitous access based on principles of responsive web design and used audio recordings of the entire course content. The course is perpetual and still on-going, but after six months there were 160 participants who had enrolled, and ten participants had completed the course and received certificates and digital badges. The participants showed extensive enthusiasm and engagement for human rights issues, and they expressed desires to learn more and further spread knowledge about human rights. The current findings suggest that the availability of digital badges and certificates increased interest for participation and positively affected learning outcomes. Moreover, the use of a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) format with incentives proved successful, combined with the contextualization and accessibility of the course content. Furthermore, the technical platform proved adequate for disseminating education for free in a developing country, and allowed for unencumbered access regardless of device. Lastly, a key challenge for future non-formal learning efforts in developing countries is the cost of Internet access.

Keyword
mobile learning, non-formal learning, digital badges, ICT4D, human rights
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-114857 (URN)
Available from: 2015-03-05 Created: 2015-03-05 Last updated: 2015-03-20Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(3182 kB)521 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 3182 kBChecksum SHA-512
c13f9766d04a3189fd82a34e7eb9f45b967ab06b07dc5004e178fc23276127aba5bd795e4a7326a05ee9f7ff0d1fe1491182fcac6a545978604e521e9e1cd030
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf
omslag(8843 kB)34 downloads
File information
File name COVER01.pdfFile size 8843 kBChecksum SHA-512
7607f065a1506a2df63981d500ee5144becb37ffce16a5e89ed5b2b1dbf434b1f7887b7af13699d13d27e76a88f1c2945d3edde3647c86ce5bc2543250da3470
Type coverMimetype application/pdf

Other links

Publisher's full text

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Hansson, Per-Olof
By organisation
Political ScienceFaculty of Arts and Sciences
DidacticsPedagogySocial Sciences Interdisciplinary

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 521 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

doi
isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 2006 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf