Transmyringeal middle ear ventilation: an experimental approach to evaluation of its benefits and consequences
1985 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
A prerequisite for a functioning middle ear is an air-filled middle ear cavity. Aeration of the middle ear cavity is controlled by the Eustachian tube. Dysfunction of the Eustachian tube has long been acknowledged as a significant etiological factor in disorders of the middle ear, especially middle ear effusions. Artificial ventilation of the middle ear through the tympanic membrane has been practised for almost two centuries, but with varying degrees of success. In 1954, Armstrong reintroduced the method of inserting a transmyringeal tympanostomy tube into the ear drum. Since that time this ventilatory device has gained wide popularity and several types of tube have been designed. However, an increasing number of clinical reports have shown treatment with tympanostomy tubes to be followed by complications such as tympanosclerosis, atrophy, persistent perforations and cholesteatomas.
In the present thesis, experiments were outlined in which the tympanostomy tube - tympanic membrane interaction was studied and in which tympanostomy tubes were also applied in a well-defined type of otitis media. Furthermore, alternative transmyringeal ventilatory procedures such as myringotomies with a delayed healing time were investigated. The results were evaluated with morphological and microbiological methods.
Repeated tympanostomy tube insertions in ears of healthy rats caused a remarkable thickening (about 30-fold) of the tympanic membrane of the tubulated quadrants, but even the untouched quadrants were affected. The thickened areas were characterized mainly by an increase in dense connective tissue which also contained sclerotic plaques. The structural changes in the tympanic membrane were still present 3 months after the final ventilation episode.
Cleavage of the rat soft palate caused an immediate accumulation of effusion material in the tympanic cavity due to disturbance of Eustachian tube function. The fluid turned purulent within one to two weeks. The microbial flora of the middle ear cavity correlated well with that of the nasopharynx, indicating an ascending infection. Insertion of a tympanostomy tube could prevent the accumulation of effusion material in the meso- and hypotympanon and significantly suppress bacterial growth in the middle ear cavity.
Thermal energy-inflicted myringotomies were tested as an alternative method for establishing transmyringeal ventilation. Myringotomies performed either with a CCL-laser or by diathermy showed a delayed healing pattern, most probably due to widespread destruction of the outer keratinized squamous epithelium and damage to the vascular supply. Upon comparison, laser myringotomies appeared more favourable due to their longer closure times, whereas the perforations accomplished by diathermy were often complicated by otorrhea and showed more advanced structural changes.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet , 1985. , 38 p.
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 146
Middle ear, tympanic membrane, otitis media, heat myringotomy, laser myringotomy, tympanostomy tube, transmyringeal ventilation
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-100561OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-100561DiVA: diva2:793382
1985-06-07, Sal B, 9 tr, Tandläkarhögskolan i Umeå, Umeå universitet, Umeå, 09:15
Hellström, Sten, docentStenfors, Lars-Eric, docent
Diss. (sammanfattning) Umeå : Umeå universitet, 1985, härtill 6 uppsatser.2015-03-112015-03-042015-04-10Bibliographically approved