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Improving User Experience of Internet Services in Cellular Networks
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science. (DISCO)
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)Alternative title
Improving User Experience of Internet Services in Cellular Networks (English)
Abstract [en]

The Internet has grown enormously since the introduction of the World Wide Web in the early 90's. The evolution and wide spread deployment of cellular networks have contributed to make the Internet accessible to more people in more places. The cellular networks of today offer data rates high enough for most Internet services. Even so, the service quality experienced by the users is often lower than in wired networks.

The performance of TCP has a large impact on user experience. Therefore, we investigate TCP in cellular networks and propose functionality to improve the situation for TCP. We have studied sources of delay and data loss, such as link layer retransmissions, queuing, and handover. Measurements were conducted in a GSM/GPRS testbed. The results indicate that TCP interact efficiently with the GSM link layer protocol in most cases. From experiments of queuing in GPRS, we conclude that with a smaller buffer delay is reduced significantly, but that TCP throughput is about the same as with a larger buffer. Furthermore, we propose an improved buffer management when a connection loses all its resources to traffic with higher priority. We also propose a scheme for data forwarding to avoid negative impact on TCP during handover for WINNER, a research system that was used to test ideas for LTE.

The achievable data rates in cellular networks are limited by inter-cell interference that vary over the cell. Inter-cell interference can be mitigated with Coordinated Multipoint techniques (CoMP), techniques that currently are being standardized for LTE-Advanced. System wide CoMP is, however, not an option, since it would be too resource consuming. In order to limit the required resources for CoMP, we propose an approach to select a subset of users for CoMP that is based on user experience. Simulation results indicate that user experience, represented with application utility,  and fairness are improved compared to if only rate is considered in the user selection.

Abstract [en]

The Internet has grown enormously since the introduction of the World Wide Web in the early 90's. The evolution and wide spread deployment of cellular networks have contributed to make the Internet accessible to more people in more places. The cellular networks of today offer data rates high enough for most Internet services. Even so, the service quality experienced by the users is often lower than in wired networks.

The performance of TCP has a large impact on user experience. Therefore, we investigate TCP in cellular networks and propose functionality to improve the situation for TCP. We have studied sources of delay and data loss, such as link layer retransmissions, queuing, and handover.

The achievable data rates in cellular networks are limited by inter-cell interference that vary over the cell area. Inter-cell interference can be mitigated with Coordinated Multipoint techniques (CoMP), techniques that currently are being standardized for LTE-Advanced. System wide CoMP is, however, not an option, since it would be too resource consuming. In order to limit the required resources for CoMP, we propose an approach to select a subset of the users for CoMP that is based on user experience.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2015. , 33 p.
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2015:18
Keyword [en]
Internet, cellular networks, wireless, TCP, ARQ, handover, queuing, CoMP, application utility, user selection, scheduling, fairness
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-35334ISBN: 978-91-7063-631-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-35334DiVA: diva2:793130
Public defence
2015-05-04, Rejmersalen, 9C 204, Karlstad, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-04-13 Created: 2015-03-06 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. TCP and GSM Link Layer Interactions: Implications for the Wireless Internet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>TCP and GSM Link Layer Interactions: Implications for the Wireless Internet
2001 (English)In: IEEE VTS 53rd Vehicular Technology Conference, 2001, IEEE conference proceedings, 2001, 2198-2202 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The demand for wireless access to the Internet has grown rapidly making the performance of TCP in wireless environments an important issue. We present experimental measurements of the performance of TCP over GSM. The measurements were captured over a real GSM network connected to a controlled radio environment. A range of radio conditions were considered with a focus on the interaction between TCP and the GSM link layer. Even for very poor radio conditions, only neglible negative interaction effects were found.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2001
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-24150 (URN)10.1109/VETECS.2001.945086 (DOI)0-7803-6728-6 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE VTC Spring 2001, Rhodes, Greece, May, 2001
Available from: 2013-01-22 Created: 2013-01-22 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
2. A GSM/GPRS Testbed for TCP Performance Evaluation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A GSM/GPRS Testbed for TCP Performance Evaluation
2002 (English)In: Proceedings of International Workshop on Wired/Wireless Internet Communications / [ed] Hamid R. Arabnia, Youngsong Mun, CSREA Press, 2002, 19-26 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Investigating the wireless Internet is a nontrivial task dueto the complexity of wireless systems and the many protocolinteractions that appear. In this paper we present a measurementtestbed that allows us to investigate the performanceof Internet traffic over a real GSM network but witha controlled radio environment and traffic load. A detailedperformance evaluation of TCP over GSM is presented. Arange of radio conditions are considered with a focus on theinteraction between TCP and the GSM link layer. With respectto efficient protocol layer interaction, the results showthat high variability in round trip times is more problematicthan poor radio conditions. How the testbed has been extendedfor GPRS and planned measurements for this systemare also discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
CSREA Press, 2002
National Category
Computer Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-2368 (URN)1-892512-38-6 (ISBN)
Conference
International Conference on Internet Computing, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
Available from: 2010-05-17 Created: 2010-05-17 Last updated: 2015-04-13Bibliographically approved
3. The Impact of GPRS Buffering on TCP Performance
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Impact of GPRS Buffering on TCP Performance
2003 (English)Report (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Wireless Internet access over GPRS, the packet-oriented extension to GSM, provides for higher data rates and more efficient network utilization compared to circuit-switched access. The performance of the Internet protocols in GPRS is dependent not only on the quality of the radio link, but also on the buffering in the GPRS network. In this paper we investigate the impact of buffering on TCP performance. Measurements are conducted in a GPRS testbed consisting of real network nodes with real protocol implementations. When the buffer between the fixed and the wireless networks is large, then the round trip times may become very long. Measurements with different buffer settings indicate that the buffer could be decreased in order to reduce the queuing delay, without degrading the throughput. Measurements of concurrent packet- and circuit-switched traffic show that buffered data is flushed immediately as the GPRS traffic is preempted by circuit-switched calls. When resources are available again, the lost data must be retransmitted. In many cases this could be avoided by guarding the data with a timer

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2003
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2003:41
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-24497 (URN)91-85019-61-5 (ISBN)
Available from: 2013-01-22 Created: 2013-01-22 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
4. Network Controlled Mobility Management with Policy Enforcement towards IMT-A
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Network Controlled Mobility Management with Policy Enforcement towards IMT-A
Show others...
2008 (English)In: International Conference on Communications, Circuits and Systems, 2008. ICCCAS 2008, Xiamen, China: IEEE conference proceedings, 2008, 139-143 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper introduces a framework of mobility management and call-handling based on policy enhancement towards the IMT-Advanced systems. The function allocation and several selected mechanisms for the framework are described. The framework is based on the EU IST WINNER research project results and enables scalable service provisioning by setting the end user satisfaction and overall system performance as general goals. This paper aims to serve as a reference for the design of IMT-Advanced systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Xiamen, China: IEEE conference proceedings, 2008
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-21762 (URN)978-1-4244-2064-3 (ISBN)978-1-4244-2063-6 (ISBN)
Conference
ICCCAS 2008
Projects
WINNER (Wireless World Initiative New Radio)
Available from: 2013-01-21 Created: 2013-01-21 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
5. Utility of Joint Processing Schemes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Utility of Joint Processing Schemes
Show others...
2010 (English)In: 2010 7th International Symposium on Wireless Communication Systems (ISWCS 2010), IEEE Communications Society, 2010, 76-80 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Joint processing between base stations has been shown as an efficient technique to mitigate inter-cell interference and increase data rates, in particular at the cell edges. In this paper, we evaluate the utility of Internet applications in a joint processing enabled cluster of base stations. Utility is used to quantify system performance as experienced by the end user. In particular, the utility of three joint processing schemes for the downlink is characterized and compared within the cluster area. The qualitative results indicate that joint processing can significantly improve the utility of hard real-time and adaptive applications. For elastic applications, joint processing is not worthwhile, since almost as high utility is achieved also with conventional single base station assignment

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Communications Society, 2010
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-10098 (URN)10.1109/ISWCS.2010.5624280 (DOI)978-1-4244-6315-2 (ISBN)
Conference
The Seventh International Symposium on Wireless Communication Systems (ISWCS)
Available from: 2012-02-08 Created: 2012-02-08 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
6. Utility as a User Selection Criterion for Coordinated Multi-Point Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Utility as a User Selection Criterion for Coordinated Multi-Point Systems
Show others...
2013 (English)In: 2013 IEEE 24th International Symposium on Personal Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), London: IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, 3123-3128 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Coordinated multipoint (CoMP) transmission and reception techniques have been proposed to combat inter-cell interference in cellular systems and, hence, to increase the data rates. Due to the overhead introduced, not all users may be served with CoMP. In this paper, we focus on how to select users for joint processing CoMP under limited backhaul capacity. The evaluated user selection schemes take user experience into account, quantified by the utility of Internet application types. We propose a heuristic algorithm utility based user selection that has low computational complexity. Utility based user selection and maximize utility, which maximizes the sum utilities, are compared to maximize rate, which maximizes the sum data rates. A range of traffic mixes and user locations are evaluated. The simulation results indicate that resources required for CoMP are more efficiently used if the user selection is based on utility rather than on maximizing the total data rate. If utility is taken into account a higher total utility can in many cases be achieved for the same limited backhaul capacity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: IEEE conference proceedings, 2013
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-30031 (URN)10.1109/PIMRC.2013.6666683 (DOI)000346481203038 ()
Conference
2013 IEEE 24th International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications(PIMRC): Mobile and Wireless Networks
Available from: 2013-11-15 Created: 2013-11-15 Last updated: 2017-10-11Bibliographically approved
7. User-centric pre-selection and scheduling for coordinated multipoint systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>User-centric pre-selection and scheduling for coordinated multipoint systems
2014 (English)In: 2014 11th International Symposium on Wireless Communications Systems (ISWCS 2014), IEEE Press, 2014, 888-894 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The data traffic volumes are constantly increasing in cellular networks. Furthermore, a larger part of the traffic is generated by applications that require high data rates. Techniques including Coordinated Multipoint transmission (CoMP) can increase the data rates, but at the cost of a high overhead. The overhead can be reduced if only a subset of the users is served with CoMP. In this paper, we propose a user selection approach, including pre-selection of CoMP users and short term scheduling, that takes user requirements into account. Users that require a high data rate to reach an acceptable level of service satisfaction are selected to use coherent joint processing CoMP in some of their downlink transmission bandwidth. Simulation results show that both the number of satisfied users and fairness are improved with the proposed user selection as compared to user selection that does not consider individual user requirements.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Press, 2014
Keyword
CHALLENGES; NETWORKS
National Category
Communication Systems Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-35122 (URN)10.1109/ISWCS.2014.6933479 (DOI)000363906500171 ()978-1-4799-5863-4 (ISBN)
Conference
11th International Symposium on Wireless Communications Systems (ISWCS), 2014, Barcelona, Spain
Available from: 2015-02-03 Created: 2015-02-03 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
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Output format
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