Design and development of a microwave multifrequency polarimetric scatterometer for biosphere remote sensing
1995 (English)Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
Microwave radar and radiometer techniques are used to gather crucial information about the earth and its atmosphere. The ERS-1, JERS-1, RadarSAT and NASA’s Mission to Planet Earth projects are designed to study the changing global environment. In all these endeavors, the key instrument is the radar or scatterometer. The advantage of microwave radar is that it is hindered very little by clouds, fog or solar radiation. Polarimetrie sensors like the shuttle-borne SIR-C radar, provides additional information compared to single polarization systems. Correct interpretation of polarimetrie data necessitates proper understanding of the scattering mechanism. Thus theory of polarization synthesis is discussed. Solution to the Kennaugh eigenvalue problem for point targets is derived. Polarimetrie signatures of point targets are shown as surfaces of spherical co-ordinates based on the Poincare sphere. Statistics of the covariance matrix elements for distributed targets are presented.
The main topic of this research report is the design and development of a multifrequency, polarimetrie scatterometer for biosphere remote sensing. The system was developed using a standard HP network analyzer, a crossed log-periodic dipole antenna and a reflector. The scatterometer functions in a linear polarization basis between the L- and X-bands and gathers full-polarimetric information. The standard S-parameter measurements using the network analyzer were related to surface and volume scattering coefficients of rough surface, snow cover and vegetation media.
The scatterometer measurements were carried out in the frequency domain to make use of narrow band filters in the receiver chain. The fast Fourier transform was used to convert the frequency domain measurements to the time domain. The range resolution of the system was 20 cm; azimuthal and elevation resolutions are determined by the antenna beam widths. Range side lobes were reduced by making use of appropriate weighting (Kaiser-Bessel window) functions. In the process of receiver design, we developed a number of signal processing techniques which are illustrated using appropriate numerical examples.
The accuracy of target characterization depends on the quality of scatterometer calibration. A novel technique to estimate the absolute gain and crosstalk of the radar system was developed. Using a distortion matrix approach, the cross-polarization response of the system was improved by 10 to 25 dB. The radar measurements were validated by comparing point target radar observations with the corresponding theoretical values. Also, measurements of fading decorrelation distance and decorrelation bandwidth of rough surfaces were in good agreement with the theory. Backscatter observations of vegetation and snow cover were comparable to earlier published values for a similar environment.
Based on initial test results and operations capability, we propose to use the present scatterometer for ground-truthing in support of ERS-1 missions. Direct comparisons of electromagnetic backscatter coefficients are possible between the ERS-1 and the present scatterometer. These joint studies are beneficial for developing inverse scattering techniques, designing new experiments and calibrating ERS-1 radar systems for distributed target environments.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Kiruna: Institutet för rymdfysik , 1995. , 118 p.
IRF Scientific Report, ISSN 0284-1703 ; 223
Polarimetry, scatterometer, microwave remote sensing, calibration, network analyzer based, S-parameters, scattering matrix
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-100377ISBN: 91-7191-064-6OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-100377DiVA: diva2:792558
1995-06-06, Institutet för Rymdfysik, Kiruna, stora konferensrummet, Institutet för Rymdfysik, Kiruna, 10:15
Diss. Umeå : Umeå universitet, 19952015-03-042015-03-022015-04-10Bibliographically approved