Genetics of Two Mendelian Traits and Validation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) Technology for Disease Modeling
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Novel technologies for genome analysis have provided almost unlimited opportunities to uncover structural gene variants behind human disorders. Whole exome sequencing (WES) is especially useful for understanding rare Mendelian conditions, because it reduces the requirements for a priori clinical data, and can be applied on a small number of patients. However, supporting functional data on the effect of specific gene variants are often required to power these findings. A variety of methods and biological model systems exists for this purpose. Among those, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which are capable of self-renewal and differentiation, stand out as an alternative to animal models.
In papers I and II we took advantage of WES to identify gene variants underlying autosomal recessive pure hair and nail ectodermal dysplasia (AR PHNED) as well as autosomal dominant familial visceral myopathy (FVM). We identified a homozygous variant c.821T>C (p.Phe274Ser) in the KRT74 gene as the causative mutation in AR PHNED, supported by the fact that Keratin-74 was undetectable in hair follicles of an affected family member. In a family segregating FVM we found a heterozygous tandem base substitution c.806_807delinsAA (p.(Gly269Glu)) in the ACTG2 gene in the affected members. This novel variant is associated with a broad range of visceral symptoms and a variable age of onset.
In Paper III we explored the similarity between clonally derived iPSC lines originating from a single parental fibroblast line and we highlighted the necessity to use lines originating from various donors in disease modeling because of biological variation. Paper IV focused on how the genomic integrity of iPSCs is affected by the choice of reprogramming methods. We described several novel cytogenetic rearrangements in iPSCs and we identified a chromosome 5q duplication as a candidate aberration for growth advantage.
In summary, this doctoral thesis brings novel findings on unreported disease-causing variants, as supported by extensive genetic analysis and functional data. A novel molecular mechanism behind AR PHNED is presented and the phenotypic spectrum associated with FVM is expanded. In addition, the thesis brings novel understanding of benefits and limitations of the iPSC technology to be considered for disease modeling.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2015. , 54 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 1078
Disease modeling, Mendelian disorders, iPSC, Whole exome sequencing, Transcriptome sequencing
Genetics Cell Biology Medical Genetics
Research subject Medical Science
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-246228ISBN: 978-91-554-9184-0OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-246228DiVA: diva2:792397
2015-04-24, Fåhraeussalen, Rudbeck Laboratoriet, Dag Hammarsjöldsväg 20, Uppsala, 09:15 (English)
List of papers