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The Passionate Combining Entrepreneurs
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0375-8576
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Entrepreneurs are portrayed as salient drivers of regional development and for a number of years nascent entrepreneurs have been studied in a large number of countries as part of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor project and the Panel Study of Entrepreneurial Dynamics. Scholars have devoted much effort to investigating factors that determine how individuals engage in entrepreneurial activities, with most of the discussion limited to business start-ups. However, since this type of project does not follow identical nascent entrepreneurs over time, limited knowledge exists about their development and whether they stay in this nascent phase for a long time. In practice, it is common for entrepreneurs to run a business and at the same time work in wage work, so-called combining entrepreneurs. In Sweden, almost half of all business owners combine wage work with a business. However, not all combining entrepreneurs will eventually decide to leave the wage work and invest fully in the business. Consequently, much research has focused on the first step of entering entrepreneurship full time, but less has focused on the second step, the transition from the combining phase to full-time self-employment. The aim of this thesis is therefore to contribute to the theory of entrepreneurship by gaining a deeper understanding of combining entrepreneurs and their motives and intentions.

 

In the context of combining entrepreneurs, the theory of identity, resources and choice overload has been used to examine how entrepreneurs’ age (when starting the business), entrepreneurial tenure (the length of engagement in the side-business), hours spent (weekly involvement in the side-business), involvement in entrepreneurial teams (leading the business with one or more partners) and involvement in networks (business networks) influence their passion for engaging in entrepreneurship while sustaining wage work. Different categories of combining entrepreneurs and their intentions have also been examined.

 

A survey was administered to 1457 entrepreneurs within the creative sector in two counties in Sweden (Gävleborgs County and Jämtlands County). Since there were no separate mailing lists to only combining entrepreneurs, the survey was sent to all entrepreneurs within the chosen industry and counties. The total response rate was 33.5 percent and of them 57.6 percent combined, yielding 262 combining entrepreneurs who answered the questionnaire. The survey was then followed up with eight focus group interviews and two single interviews to validate the answers from the questionnaire.

 

The results indicate three types of combining entrepreneurs: nascent – with the intention to leave the combining phase for a transition into full-time self-employment, lifestyle – with the intention to stay in the combining phase, and occasional – with the intention to leave the combining phase for full-time wage work and close down the business. Transitioning fully to self-employment increases with the individual’s age. Also, a positive interactive effect exists with involvement in entrepreneurial networks. The results also indicate that the ability to work with something one is passionate about is the top motive for combining wage work with a side-business. Passion is also more likely to be the main motive behind the combining form among individuals who are older at business start-up, but passion is less likely to be the main motive behind the combining form among individuals who spend more time on the business. The longer the individual has had the side-business, the less likely passion is the main motive behind the combining form, and passion is less likely to be the main motive among those who are part of an entrepreneurial team.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Östersund: Mid Sweden University , 2015. , 273 p.
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 214
Keyword [en]
Combining entrepreneurs, hybrid entrepreneurs, self-employment, nascent entrepreneurs, lifestyle entrepreneurs, occasional entrepreneurs, passion, entrepreneurial tenure, entrepreneurial teams, choice, logistic regression
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-24440ISBN: 978-91-88025-02-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-24440DiVA: diva2:790961
Public defence
2015-03-27, F229, Östersund, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Avhandlingen baseras på fem delarbeten, tre var opublicerade vid tidpunkten för disputationen, två länkas här.

Available from: 2015-02-27 Created: 2015-02-26 Last updated: 2015-12-10Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Kombinatörer och livsstilsföretagare - även samhällsentreprenörer?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Kombinatörer och livsstilsföretagare - även samhällsentreprenörer?
2014 (Swedish)In: Samhällsentreprenörskap: samverkande för lokal utveckling / [ed] Yvonne von Friedrichs, Malin Gawell och Joakim Wincent, Sweden, Östersund: Mid Sweden University , 2014, 1, 127-148 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [sv]

Nästan hälften av alla företagare i Sverige är kombinatörer. Det är främst personer som har en anställning som blir kombinatörer genom att de startar företag. Arbetsformen gör det möjligt att testa sin idé utan att förlora den trygghet det innebär med en fast inkomst varje månad. Men blir man kombinatör bara för att testa sin idé och gå mot eget företagande på heltid, eller finns det andra motiv till varför man väljer denna arbetsform, till exempel för att det är en livsstil? Har den lokala och regionala platsen någon betydelse? Dessa frågeställningar kommer bland annat detta kapitel att försöka besvara med hjälp av enkäter och intervjuer med personer inom den kreativa näringen. Den kreativa näringen är vald för att den dels representerar en näring som fått stor uppmärksamhet inom både forskning och näringsliv de senaste åren, framförallt efter Florida:s (2004) bok om den kreativa klassen. Näringen spås även bidra starkt till den ekonomiska tillväxten i framtiden (Howkins 2002, Florida et al. 2008). Den är också vald för att det är en näring som kanske attraherar fler kombinatörer då den bland annat representerar artister, konstnärer och musiker som kan ha svårt att överleva på sitt företag. Respondenterna i det här kapitlet är, har varit eller vill bli kombinatörer och är bosatta i Gävleborgs- och Jämtlands län. Personerna inom den kreativa näringen värnar om varandra och kämpar på, trots att det finns ett antal hinder på vägen. Intresset och passionen de har för sitt företag samt sin region övervinner enligt dem allt, vilket gör dem till en samhällsaktör att räkna med. Dessa personer startar företag för att de i många fall vill utveckla sin hobby men också för att de vill bo kvar på orten och bidra till ortens överlevnad.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sweden, Östersund: Mid Sweden University, 2014 Edition: 1
Series
Social Science Reports from Mid Sweden University, 2014:5
Keyword
Kombinatörer, livsstilsföretagare, samhällsentreprenörer
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-21355 (URN)978-91-87557-33-0 (ISBN)
Projects
SESPA
Available from: 2014-02-27 Created: 2014-02-18 Last updated: 2015-02-27Bibliographically approved
2. Hybrid entrepreneurship: the importance of passion
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hybrid entrepreneurship: the importance of passion
2014 (English)In: Baltic Journal of Management, ISSN 1746-5265, E-ISSN 1746-5273, Vol. 9, no 3, 314-329 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the motives behind individuals’ choice to haveparallel business-employment careers (hybrid entrepreneurship) with a particular focus on passion(i.e. to work with something one is passionate about) as the main motive.Design/methodology/approach – A survey was administered to 262 Swedish hybridentrepreneurs. Hypotheses proposed associations of the individual’s age at business start-up andweekly hours spent on the business with passion as the main motive for the hybrid form. Logisticregression was used to test the hypotheses.Findings – The results indicated that first, the ability to work with something one is passionate aboutis the top motive for combining employment with a side business; second, passion is more likely to bethe main motive behind the hybrid form among individuals who are older at business start-up; third,passion is less likely to be the main motive behind the hybrid form among individuals who spend moretime on the business.Research limitations/implications – The study focusses on passion as motive for hybridentrepreneurship, and in doing so, it does not test the extent to which hybrid entrepreneurs experiencepassion.Practical implications – The results support the popular notion that passion drives people to haveparallel business-employment careers. Findings indicating that passion as a motive is more commonamong those who are older at start-up and less common among those who spend more time onthe business suggest the importance of acknowledging hybrid entrepreneurs’ various profiles whenapproaching them in research and practice.Originality/value – This is the first study on motives behind hybrid entrepreneurship.

Keyword
Hybrid entrepreneurship, Logistic regression, Passion
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-22580 (URN)10.1108/BJM-11-2013-0175 (DOI)000341650200004 ()2-s2.0-84926320825 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-08-18 Created: 2014-08-18 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved

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