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HIV POSITIVE WOMEN’S EXPERIENCE OF STIGMA FROM HEALTHCARE PROFESSIONALS DURING PREGNANCY AND CHILDBIRTH: Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
2015 (English)Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [sv]

 

Introduktion: 1,2 miljoner människor lever med HIV/AIDS i Etiopien, men med rätt åtgärder kan en gravid, HIV-positiv kvinna minska risken för att smitta sitt barn till under 5 %. Trots detta upplever en majoritet av HIV-positiva patienter stigma från sjukvårdspersonal som kan leda till en minskad livskvalitet. Vårdpersonalens förståelse av stigma och kunskap om HIV är nödvändig för att utveckla strategier för att minska denna stigmatisering.

Syfte: Syftet med studien var att undersöka HIV-positiva kvinnors upplevelser av stigmatisering från vårdpersonal under graviditet och förlossning i Addis Ababa, Etiopien.

Metod: En deskriptiv studie med kvalitativ ansats användes. Sju HIV-positiva kvinnor som har mottagit mödravård i Addis Ababa, Etiopien, deltog med hjälp av bekvämlighet urval. Travelbees omvårdnadteori och en kognitiv modell av AIDS-relaterad stigma användes som teoretisk ram. Strukturerade intervjufrågor användes och data analyserades med en kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Resultat: Studien har tre kategorier; Negativa reaktioner från vårdpersonal, Ingen känsla av stigma och Utbildning från vårdpersonal till kvinnorna. Majoriteten av deltagarna hade upplevt en händelse av HIV-relaterat stigma från vårdpersonal. Detta genom att bland annat känna sig annorlunda bemött på grund av sin diagnos eller genom att ha upplevt hur vårdpersonalen var överdrivet rädda för att bli smittade. Resultatet visar också att det finns vårdpersonal som utövar en vård utan stigmatisering samt att utbildning gavs till samtliga kvinnor från vårdpersonalen angående hur HIV smittas och dess medicinering. Slutsats: Stigmatisering från vårdpersonal förekommer bland HIV-positiva kvinnor. Sjuksköterskan har ett ansvar för att minska stigmatisering genom att utöva en omvårdnad där kvinnorna känner sig lika behandlad och respekterad. Förbättring behövs där vårdpersonal utvecklar sin förståelse av stigmatisering och av hur ett stigmatiserande beteende inom vården kan undvikas.

Abstract [en]

Introduction: 1.2 million people live with HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia, but with correct interventions a HIV positive pregnant woman can reduce the risk of infecting her baby to below 5 %. Nevertheless, a majority of HIV positive patients experience stigma from healthcare professionals, which can lead to a reduced life quality. Healthcare professionals’ understanding of stigma and knowledge about HIV is necessary in order to develop strategies to reduce this stigma.

Purpose: The purpose of the study was to investigate HIV positive women's experience of stigma from healthcare professionals during pregnancy and childbirth in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Method: A descriptive study with a qualitative method was used. Seven HIV positive women who had received maternity care in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia participated and were chosen through a convenience sample. Structured interview questions were used and data were analyzed by using qualitative content analysis. Travelbeés theory of care and cognitive model of AIDS-related stigmatization were used as theoretical framework.

Results: Three categories were identified in this study: Negative reactions from health care professionals, Non-presence of stigma and Education from healthcare professionals. The majority of the participants had experienced an event of HIV- related stigma from healthcare professionals. These HIV positive women felt as if they were treated differently because of their diagnosis and they experienced the professionals’ fear of becoming infected. However some of the HIV positive women who were interviewed felt they had also experienced situations where no stigmatization was shown by healthcare professionals. All the woman who were interviewed had received information about the HIV virus, how it´s spread and what medication is used as treatment.

Conclusion: Stigma from healthcare professionals among HIV positive woman exists. Health care professionals have a responsibility to reduce stigma by providing care that gives women the sense of being equally treated and respected. Improvements are needed in the education of healthcare professionals so that they can develop an understanding of stigma as well as an understanding of how their own stigmatizing behavior can be reduced when caring for HIV positive women.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. , 31 p.
Keyword [en]
HIV/AIDS, Ethiopia, women, stigma, experience, pregnancy, childbirth
Keyword [sv]
HIV/AIDS, Etiopien, kvinnor, stigmatisering, upplevelse, graviditet, förlossning
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-244699OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-244699DiVA: diva2:789711
Subject / course
Caring Sciences
Educational program
Registered Nurse Programme
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2015-02-23 Created: 2015-02-19 Last updated: 2015-02-23Bibliographically approved

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