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Electrically conductive textile coatings with PEDOT:PSS
University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In smart textiles, electrical conductivity is often required for several functions, especially contacting (electroding) and interconnecting. This thesis explores electrically conductive textile surfaces made by combining conventional textile coating methods with the intrinsically conductive polymer complex poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene)-poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS).

PEDOT:PSS was used in textile coating formulations including polymer binder, ethylene glycol (EG) and rheology modifier. Shear viscometry was used to identify suitable viscosities of the formulations for each coating method. The coating methods were knife coating, pad coating and screen printing. The first part of the work studied the influence of composition of the coating formulation, the amount of coating and the film formation process on the surface resistivity and the surface appearance of knife-coated textiles. The electrical resistivity was largely affected by the amount of PEDOT:PSS in the coating and indicated percolation behaviour within the system. Addition of a high-boiling solvent, i.e. EG, decreased the surface resistivity with more than four orders of magnitude. Studies of tear strength and bending rigidity showed that textiles coated with formulations containing larger amounts of PEDOT:PSS and EG were softer, more ductile and stronger than those coated with formulations containing more binder. The coated textiles were found to be durable to abrasion and cyclic strain, as well as quite resilient to the harsh treatment of shear flexing. Washing increased the surface resistivity, but the samples remained conductive after five wash cycles.

The second part of the work focused on using the coatings to transfer the voltage signal from piezoelectric textile fibres; the coatings were first applied using pad coating as the outer electrode on a woven sensor and then as screen-printed interconnections in a sensing glove based on stretchy, warp-knitted fabric. Sensor data from the glove was successfully used as input to a microcontroller running a robot gripper. These applications showed the viability of the concept and that the coatings could be made very flexible and integrated into the textile garment without substantial loss of the textile characteristics. The industrial feasibility of the approach was also verified through the variations of coating methods.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borås: Högskolan i Borås, 2015. , 46 p.
Series
Skrifter från Högskolan i Borås, ISSN 0280-381X ; 56
Keyword [en]
textile coating, conductive coating, conjugated polymers, ICP, PEDOT:PSS, textile properties, textile sensor, printed electronics, Smart textiles, poly(3, 4-ethylene dioxythiophene)-poly(styrene sulfonate)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Textiles and Fashion (General)
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-19ISBN: 9789187525391 (print)ISBN: 9789187525407 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hb-19DiVA: diva2:788776
Public defence
2015-03-23, T154, The Swedish School of Textiles, Skaraborgsvägen 3A, Borås, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Available from: 2015-05-19 Created: 2015-02-16 Last updated: 2015-12-18Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Textile sensing glove with piezoelectric PVDF fibers and printed electrodes of PEDOT:PSS
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Textile sensing glove with piezoelectric PVDF fibers and printed electrodes of PEDOT:PSS
2015 (English)In: Textile research journal, ISSN 0040-5175, E-ISSN 1746-7748, Vol. 85, no 17, 1789-1799 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Keyword
textile sensor, smart textile
National Category
Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials
Research subject
Textiles and Fashion (General)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-4065 (URN)
Available from: 2015-12-15 Created: 2015-12-15 Last updated: 2017-12-01
2. Textile piezoelectric sensors: melt spun bi-component poly(vinylidene fluoride) fibres with conductive cores and poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene)-poly(styrene sulfonate) coating as the outer electrode
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Textile piezoelectric sensors: melt spun bi-component poly(vinylidene fluoride) fibres with conductive cores and poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene)-poly(styrene sulfonate) coating as the outer electrode
2014 (English)In: Fashion and Textiles, ISSN 2198-0802, Vol. 1, no 13Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The work presented here addresses the outer electroding of a fully textile piezoelectric strain sensor, consisting of bi-component fibre yarns of β-crystalline poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) sheath and conductive high density polyethylene (HDPE)/carbon black (CB) core as insertions in a woven textile, with conductive poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene)-poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) coatings developed for textile applications. Two coatings, one with a polyurethane binder and one without, were compared for the application and evaluated as electrode material in piezoelectric testing, as well as tested for surface resistivity, tear strength, abrasion resistance and shear flexing. Both coatings served their function as the outer electrodes in the system and no difference in this regard was detected between them. Omission of the binder resulted in a surface resistivity one order of magnitude less, of 12.3 Ω/square, but the surface resistivity of these samples increased more upon abrasion than the samples coated with binder. The tear strength of the textile coated with binder decreased with one third compared to the uncoated substrate, whereas the tear strength of the coated textile without binder increased with the same amount. Surface resistivity measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the samples subjected to shear flexing showed that the coatings without the binder did not withstand this treatment, and that the samples with the binder managed this to a greater extent. In summary, both of the PEDOT:PSS coatings could be used as outer electrodes of the piezoelectric fibres, but inclusion of binder was found necessary for the durability of the coating.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SpringerOpen, 2014
Keyword
Textile technology
National Category
Other Materials Engineering Materials Engineering
Research subject
Textiles and Fashion (General)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-1919 (URN)10.1186/s40691-014-0013-6 (DOI)2320/14287 (Local ID)2320/14287 (Archive number)2320/14287 (OAI)
Funder
VINNOVA
Available from: 2015-11-13 Created: 2015-11-13 Last updated: 2017-12-02Bibliographically approved
3. Electrically conductive textile coating with a PEDOT-PSS dispersion and a polyurethane binder
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrically conductive textile coating with a PEDOT-PSS dispersion and a polyurethane binder
2013 (English)In: Textile research journal, ISSN 0040-5175, E-ISSN 1746-7748, Vol. 83, no 6, 618-627 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Electrically conductive textile coatings have been prepared by the addition of a dispersion of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene)-polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT-PSS) and ethylene glycol to a polyurethane-based coating formulation. The formulations were designed to have similar viscosities, measured with a rheometer using a cone-and-plate set-up. The formulations were applied to woven poly(ethylene) terephthalate substrates using a direct coating method. The concentration PEDOT-PSS in the finished coatings varied between 0.7 and 6.2 wt%, the coating deposit between 19 and 155 g/m2 and the drying procedure between 4 hours at 20 C and 10 minutes at 150 C. Surface resistivity was measured with a ring probe and surface topology was addressed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The PEDOT-PSS concentration had a large effect on the resistivity, which dropped by five orders of magnitude with an increased concentration. The steepest decrease occurred between 1 and 3 wt% PEDOT-PSS, indicating a percolation threshold. An increased coating deposit resulted in a resistivity drop by a factor 10, but no significant effect on the resistivity of the samples could be ascertained by variation of the drying conditions when samples had been subjected to subsequent annealing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2013
Keyword
Coatings, composites, incorporation, intrinsically conductive polymers, measurement, properties, Textile technology
National Category
Materials Engineering
Research subject
Textiles and Fashion (General)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-1345 (URN)10.1177/0040517512444330 (DOI)000317934000006 ()2320/11564 (Local ID)2320/11564 (Archive number)2320/11564 (OAI)
Note

Sponsorship:

Sparbanksstiftelsen Sjuhärad; the Smart Textiles initiative

Available from: 2015-11-13 Created: 2015-11-13 Last updated: 2017-12-02Bibliographically approved
4. Influence of coating parameters on textile and electrical properties of a poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate)/polyurethane-coated textile
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of coating parameters on textile and electrical properties of a poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate)/polyurethane-coated textile
2013 (English)In: Textile research journal, ISSN 0040-5175, E-ISSN 1746-7748, Vol. 83, no 20, 1-13 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Textile coatings with electrical conductivity were obtained by the addition of poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene)-poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and ethylene glycol (EG) to a polyurethane (PU)-based coating formulation. Variations of the coating formulation, the coating amount and the drying conditions, as well as the absence of an annealing step, were investigated. The coated fabrics were evaluated for tear strength and bending rigidity as well as surface resistivity and appearance before and after Martindale abrasion. A high proportion of PEDOT:PSS dispersion in the formulation and the presence of EG provided low surface resistivity. This composition resulted in softer samples with higher tear strength than those containing more PU-binder. All coatings proved to withstand abrasion to a similar extent. The surface resistivity increased gradually with the abrasion, about one half order of magnitude, except for those coatings that had been subjected to a faster drying process, where the surface resistivity increased somewhat faster.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications Ltd., 2013
Keyword
Textile technology, Smart Textiles
National Category
Materials Engineering
Research subject
Textiles and Fashion (General)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-1625 (URN)10.1177/0040517513487786 (DOI)000327372700006 ()2320/12715 (Local ID)2320/12715 (Archive number)2320/12715 (OAI)
Note

Sponsorship:

Sparbanksstiftelsen Sjuhärad, Smart Textiles

Available from: 2015-11-13 Created: 2015-11-13 Last updated: 2017-12-02Bibliographically approved

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