What We Expect Is Not Always What We Get: Evidence for Both the Direction-of-Change and the Specific-Stimulus Hypotheses of Auditory Attentional Capture
2014 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 11, e111997- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Participants were requested to respond to a sequence of visual targets while listening to a well-known lullaby. One of the notes in the lullaby was occasionally exchanged with a pattern deviant. Experiment 1 found that deviants capture attention as a function of the pitch difference between the deviant and the replaced/expected tone. However, when the pitch difference between the expected tone and the deviant tone is held constant, a violation to the direction-of-pitch change across tones can also capture attention (Experiment 2). Moreover, in more complex auditory environments, wherein it is difficult to build a coherent neural model of the sound environment from which expectations are formed, deviations can capture attention but it appears to matter less whether this is a violation from a specific stimulus or a violation of the current direction-of-change (Experiment 3). The results support the expectation violation account of auditory distraction and suggest that there are at least two different expectations that can be violated: One appears to be bound to a specific stimulus and the other would seem to be bound to a more global cross-stimulus rule such as the direction-of-change based on a sequence of preceding sound events. Factors like base-rate probability of tones within the sound environment might become the driving mechanism of attentional capture-rather than violated expectations-in complex sound environments.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Library of Science , 2014. Vol. 9, no 11, e111997- p.
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-114028DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0111997ISI: 000347709300027PubMedID: 25393298OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-114028DiVA: diva2:786490
Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council [2010-2042]2015-02-052015-02-052015-02-24