Tumour Survival Signals and Epigenetic Gene Silencing in Multiple Myeloma: Implications for Biology and Therapy
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
This thesis is focused on multiple myeloma (MM), a haematological malignancy that still remains incurable. The pathogenesis of MM is not fully understood and there is a large intra-tumour and interclonal genetic variation in MM patients. One of the most challenging areas in MM research is to find mechanisms for initiation and progression of MM, but also to overcome the arising resistance to therapy.
In paper I, a signature of under-expressed genes in MM was found to significantly correlate with already defined Polycomb target genes. In selected genes from the profile we found an enrichment of H3K27me3, a repressive mark catalysed by Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), in MM patients and MM cell lines. Treatment with LBH589 (HDAC inhibitor) and DZNep (methyltransferase inhibitor) reactivated the H3K27me3 target genes and induced apoptosis in MM cell lines. LBH589 reduced tumour load and increased overall survival in the 5T33MM mice. These results suggest an important role for Polycomb complex in MM development and highlight PRC2 as a drug target in MM.
In paper II, the insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor tyrosine kinase (IGF-1RTK) inhibitor picropodophyllin (PPP) in combination with LBH589 synergistically inhibited cell proliferation and enhanced the apoptotic effect in MM. Since the bone marrow microenvironment has an important role in MM disease and also contributes to drug-resistance, we therefore evaluated the drug combination in the immunocompetent 5T33MM murine model. The drug combination significantly prolonged the survival of the 5T33MM mice compared to single drug treatment. We conclude that the combination of PPP and LBH589 has a therapeutic potential in MM.
In paper III, the role of the cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 2 (cIAP2) was evaluated in MM cells harbouring TRAF3 deletion/mutation. By overexpressing cIAP2 in these cells we found an increased resistance to proteasome inhibitors. cIAP2 over-expression by lentiviral constructs led to decreased caspase activation, activation of the canonical NF-κB pathway, and down-regulation of tumour suppressor genes and genes that contribute to apoptosis. Supporting the role of cIAP2 mediated drug-resistance, we here demonstrate that inhibiting cIAP2 using an IAP antagonist, increased the sensitivity to the proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2015. , 45 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 1071
Multiple myeloma, Polycomb, apoptosis, cIAP2, IAP-inbibitors, proteasome inhibitors, LBH589, PPP, DZNep
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-242571ISBN: 978-91-554-9159-8OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-242571DiVA: diva2:785793
2015-03-25, Fåhraeussalen, Rudbeck Laboratory, Dag Hammarskjölds väg 20, Uppsala, 09:15 (English)
Jernberg-Wiklund, Helena, Prof
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