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Double in-plane alignment in biaxially textured thin films
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanoscale engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4811-478X
Sandvik Coromant AB, Sweden.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6602-7981
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanoscale engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2864-9509
2014 (English)In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 105, no 23, 233113- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The scientific interest and technological relevance of biaxially textured polycrystalline thin films stem from their microstructure that resembles that of single crystals. To explain the origin and predict the type of biaxial texture in off-normally deposited films, Mahieu et al. have developed an analytical model [S. Mahieu et al., Thin Solid Films 515, 1229 (2006)]. For certain materials, this model predicts the occurrence of a double in-plane alignment, however, experimentally only a single in-plane alignment has been observed and the reason for this discrepancy is still unknown. The model calculates the resulting in-plane alignment by considering the growth of faceted grains with an out-of-plane orientation that corresponds to the predominant film out-of-plane texture. This approach overlooks the fact that in vapor condensation experiments where growth kinetics is limited and only surface diffusion is active, out-of-plane orientation selection is random during grain nucleation and happens only upon grain impingement. Here, we compile and implement an experiment that is consistent with the key assumptions set forth by the in-plane orientation selection model by Mahieu et al.; a Cr film is grown off-normally on a fiber textured Ti epilayer to pre-determine the out-of-plane orientation and only allow for competitive growth with respect to the in-plane alignment. Our results show unambiguously a biaxially textured Cr (110) film that possesses a double in-plane alignment, in agreement with predictions of the in-plane selection model. Thus, a long standing discrepancy in the literature is resolved, paving the way towards more accurate theoretical descriptions and hence knowledge-based control of microstructure evolution in biaxially textured thin films.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Institute of Physics (AIP) , 2014. Vol. 105, no 23, 233113- p.
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-113499DOI: 10.1063/1.4903932ISI: 000346266000086OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-113499DiVA: diva2:781937
Note

Funding Agencies|Linkoping University

Available from: 2015-01-19 Created: 2015-01-19 Last updated: 2017-12-05
In thesis
1. Nanoscale structure forming processes: Metal thin films grown far-from-equilibrium
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nanoscale structure forming processes: Metal thin films grown far-from-equilibrium
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Thin film growth from the vapor phase has for a long time intrigued researchers endeavouring to unravel and understand atomistic surface processes that govern film formation. Their motivation has not been purely scientific, but also driven by numerous applications where this understanding is paramount to knowledge-based design of novel film materials with tailored properties.

Within the above framework, this thesis investigates growth of metal films on weakly bonding substrates, a combination of great relevance for applications concerning e.g., catalysis, graphene metallization and architectural glazing. When metal vapor condenses on weakly bonding substrates three dimensional islands nucleate, grow and coalesce prior to forming a continuous film. The combined effect of these initial growth stages on film formation and morphology evolution is studied using pulsed vapor fluxes for the model system Ag/SiO2. It is shown that the competition between island growth and coalescence completion determines structure evolution. The effect of the initial growth stages on film formation is also examined for the tilted columnar microstructure obtained when vapor arrives at an angle that deviates from the substrate surface normal. This is done using two metals with distinctly different nucleation behaviour, and the findings suggest that the column tilt angle is set by nucleation conditions in conjunction with shadowing of the vapor flux by adjacent islands. Vapor arriving at an angle can in addition result in films that exhibit preferred crystallographic orientations, both out-of-plane and in-plane. Their emergence is commonly described by an evolutionary growth model, which for some materials predict a double in-plane alignment that has not been observed experimentally. Here, an experiment is designed to replicate the model’s growth conditions, confirming the existence of double in-plane alignment.

New and added film functionalities can further be unlocked by alloying. Properties are then largely set by chemistry and atomic arrangement, where the latter can be affected by thermodynamics, kinetics and vapor flux modulation. Their combined effect on atomic arrangement is here unravelled by presenting a research methodology that encompasses high resolution vapor flux modulation, nanoscale structure v vi probes and growth simulations. The methodology is deployed to study the immiscible Ag-Cu and miscible Ag-Au model systems, for which it is shown that capping of Cu by Ag atoms via near surface diffusion processes and rough morphology of the Ag-Au growth front are the decisive structure forming processes in each respective system.

The results generated in this thesis are of relevance for tuning structure of metal films grown on weakly bonding substrates. They also indicate that improved growth models are required to accurately describe structure evolution and emergence of a preferred in-plane orientation in films where vapor arrives at an angle that deviates from the substrate surface normal. In addition, this thesis presents a methodology that can be used to identify and understand structure forming processes in multicomponent films, which may enable tailoring of atomic arrangement and related properties in technologically relevant material systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016. 71 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1804
National Category
Inorganic Chemistry Other Materials Engineering Other Physics Topics Materials Chemistry Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-132895 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-132895 (DOI)9789176856390 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-01-20, Planck, Fysikhuset, Campus Valla, Linköping, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-11-30 Created: 2016-11-30 Last updated: 2016-11-30Bibliographically approved

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