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Temperature-controlled in vivo ocular exposure to 1090-nm radiation suggests that near-infrared radiation cataract is thermally induced
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology. (Gullstrand lab/ Leader Per Söderberg)ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0654-5856
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology.
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Biomedical Optics, ISSN 1083-3668, E-ISSN 1560-2281, Vol. 20, no 1, 015003Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The damage mechanism for near infrared radiation induced (IRR) cataract is unclear. Both a photochemical and a thermal mechanism were suggested.

The current paper aims to elucidate a photochemical effect based on investigation of irradiance-exposure time reciprocity.

Groups of 20 rats were unilaterally exposed to 96 W/cm2 IRR at 1090 nm within the dilated pupil accumulating 57, 103, 198, 344 kJ/cm2 respectively. Temperature was recorded at the limbus of the exposed eye. Seven days after exposure, the lenses were macroscopically imaged and light scattering was measured quantitatively.

The average maximum temperature increase for exposure time 10, 18, 33, 60 minutes was expressed as CI(0.95); 7.0±1.1, 6.8±1.1, 7.6±1.3, 7.4±1.1 ºC at the limbus of the exposed eye. The difference of light scattering in the lenses between exposed and contralateral not exposed eyes was 0.00±0.02, 0.01±0.03, -0.01±0.02, -0.01±0.03 tEDC, respectively and no apparent morphological changes in the lens were observed.

An exposure to 96 W/cm2 1090 nm IRR projected on the cornea within the dilated pupil accumulating radiant exposures up to 344 kJ/cm2 does not induce cataract if the temperature rise at the limbus is below 8 °C. This is consistent with a thermal damage mechanism for IRR induced cataract.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 20, no 1, 015003
Keyword [en]
infrared radiation, temperature, forward light scattering, lens
National Category
Ophthalmology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-240718DOI: 10.1117/1.JBO.20.1.015003ISI: 000350206400007PubMedID: 25602780OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-240718DiVA: diva2:776986
Available from: 2015-01-08 Created: 2015-01-08 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Damage mechanisms for near-infrared radiation induced cataract
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Damage mechanisms for near-infrared radiation induced cataract
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Purpose: 1) To estimate the threshold dose and the time evolution for cataract induction by near infrared radiation (IRR) in seconds exposure time domain; 2) to determine the ocular temperature development during the threshold exposure; 3) to investigate if near IRR induces cumulative lens damage considering irradiance exposure time reciprocity; 4) to experimentally estimate the temperature in the lens indirectly from the measurement of temperature-induced light scattering increase.

Methods: Before exposure, 6-weeks-old albino rats were anesthetized and the pupils of both eyes were dilated. Then the animals were unilaterally exposed to 1090 nm IRR within the pupil area. Temperature was recorded with thermocouples placed in the selected positions of the eye. At the planned post-exposure time, the animal was sacrificed and the lenses were extracted for measurements of forward light scattering and macroscopic imaging (Paper I-III). In Paper IV, the lens was extracted from six-weeks-old albino Sprague-Dawley female rats and put into a temperature-controlled cuvette filled with balanced salt solution. Altogether, 80 lenses were equally divided on four temperature groups, 37, 40, 43 and 46 ºC. Each lens was exposed for 5 minutes to temperature depending on group belonging while the intensity of forward light scattering was recorded.

Results: The in vivo exposure to 197 W/cm2 1090 nm IRR required a minimum 8 s for cataract induction. There was approximately 16 h delay between exposure and light scattering development in the lens. The same radiant exposure was found to cause a temperature increase of 10 °C at the limbus and 26 °C close to the retina. The in vivo exposure to 96 W/cm2 1090 nm IRR with exposure time up to 1 h resulted in an average temperature elevation of 7 °C at the limbus with the cornea humidified and no significant light scattering was induced one week after exposure. Arrhenius equation implies that the natural logarithm of the inclination coefficient for light scattering increase is linearly dependent on the inverse of the temperature. The proportionality constant and the intercept, estimated as CI(0.95)s, were 9.6±2.4 x103 K and 22.8±7.7. Further, it implies that if averaging 20 measurements of inclination coefficients in a new experiment at constant heat load, the confidence limits for prediction of temperature correspond to ±1.9 °C.

Conclusions: It is indicated that IRR at 1090 nm produces thermal but not cumulatively photochemical cataract, probably by indirect heat conduction from absorption in tissues surrounding the lens. Applying the Arrhenius equation the in vivo temperature in the lens can be determined retrospectively with sufficient resolution.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2017. 24 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 1284
Keyword
infrared radiation, photochemical, thermal, forward light scattering, lens, cataract, temperature, Arrhenius equation, heat diffusion
National Category
Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-308835 (URN)9789155497736 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-01-20, Enghoffsalen, Entrance 50, 1st floor, Akademiska Sjukhuset, Uppsala, 13:00 (English)
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Supervisors
Available from: 2016-12-23 Created: 2016-11-30 Last updated: 2017-01-25

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