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Upplevelser av att leva med alkoholberoende: Med fokus på socioekonomisk status och svensk sjukvård
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
2014 (Swedish)Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [sv]

Bakgrund: Alkoholberoende är en psykisk sjukdom med både hög förekomst och stor utbredning. Socioekonomisk status (SES) är ett begrepp som innefattar utbildningsnivå, yrkesstatus och inkomst (Statistikcentralen, i.d). Många olika faktorer såsom arv och miljö kan öka risken för att en person drabbas av ett alkoholberoende. Tidigare forskning är oense gällande sambandet mellan alkohol och SES.

Syfte: Att kartlägga hur människor med olika socioekonomiska förutsättningar upplever sitt alkoholberoende och mötet med sjukvården.

Metod: En explorativ design med kvalitativ forskningsansats som bygger på personers egna upplevelser och erfarenheter av fenomenet alkoholberoende.

Resultat: Känsloliv och tillgänglighet var avgörande orsaker till att ett alkoholberoende utvecklades. Yrkeslivet kunde både bidra till ökad och minskad alkoholkonsumtion. Alkohol kunde användas för att uppnå behag, dämpa ångest och känna samhörighet. Nyktra alkoholister upplevde överlag inte alkohol som något negativt. Personer med högre SES konsumerade mer alkohol i veckorna och fick lättare och snabbare tillgång till vård. Oavsett SES kunde alkoholberoende leda till psykiska besvär och försämrad ekonomi, vilket påverkade de personer med lägst SES hårdast. Rattfylleri var det mest frekvent rapporterade riskbeteendet under alkoholpåverkan, detta hade ingen koppling till SES. Upplevelser av passivitet från omgivningen var vanligt, när omgivningen agerade kunde det väcka förnekelse. Sjuksköterskans bemötande upplevdes som oklanderligt men sjukvården betraktades generellt som icke-fungerande. Terapeutisk effekt uppnåddes lättare om hjälparen också hade ett alkoholberoende, en av orsakerna till att Anonyma Alkoholisters verksamhet upplevdes som positiv. Produktivitet, intressen och motivation var nyckelfaktorer för att motverka återfall.

Slutsats: I de socioekonomiska grupperna varierade upplevelserna av alkoholberoendet främst gällande dryckesmönster, tillgång till vård samt bakomliggande orsaker till alkoholdrickandet. Ett alkoholberoende drabbade de personer med lägst SES hårdast. Bemötandet av personer med alkoholberoende inom svensk hälso- och sjukvård upplevdes som oklanderligt, dock var många delar av vården utformade på ett icke-fungerande sätt. 

Abstract [en]

Background: Alcohol addiction is a widespread mental illness with high prevalence. Socioeconomic status (SES) is a term that includes education, occupational status and income (Statistikcentralen, i.d). Many different factors such as heredity and the environment may increase the risk of a person becoming addicted to alcohol. Previous research presents different results about the relationship between alcohol and socioeconomic status.

Aim: To chart how people with different socioeconomic conditions experienced their alcohol addicition and the health care.

Methods: An explorative design with qualitative research approach based on people’s own experiences of the phenomenon alcohol addiction.

Results: Emotions and availability were main reasons of the development of an alcohol addiction. People´s employment could contribute to both increased and reduced alcohol consumption. Alchol could be used to reach amenity and solidarity and to decrease anxiety. Sober alcoholics did not experience alcohol as something negative. People with a high SES consumed a greater quantity of alcohol during the weekdays and had easier and quicker access to health care than people with lower SES. Alcohol addition could contribute to psychological issues and a worsened economy, especially for the people with lowest SES. Drunk driving was the most highly reported risk behaviour under the influence of alcohol but without connection to the SES. The respondents experienced that the surrounding people mostly remained passive but when they did react it could issue in denial. The nurse’s treatment were experienced as impeccable but the health care was generally considered as not effective. Therapeutic effect was achieved more easily if the helpers had their own addictions, one of the reasons to that Anonymous Alcoholics was regarded as a positive activity. Productivity, hobbies and motivation were key factors to prevent relapse.

Conclusion: The experience of the alcohol addiction varied between the socioeconomic groups, mainly concerning drinking patterns, access to health care and the underlying causes to alcohol drinking. An alcohol addiction affected those people with the lowest SES mostly. The treatment of people with alcohol addiction in the swedish health care were experienced as faultless, yet there were many aspects of the healthcare that were generally considered to be dysfunctional.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. , 47 p.
Keyword [en]
alcohol addiction, addiction care, experiences, socioeconomic status, treatment
Keyword [sv]
alkoholberoende, beroendevård, upplevelser, socioekonomisk status, bemötande
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-240697OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-240697DiVA: diva2:776946
Educational program
Registered Nurse Programme
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2015-01-08 Created: 2015-01-08 Last updated: 2015-01-08Bibliographically approved

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