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Wireless Interface Technologies for Sensor Networks
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The main focus of the work presented in this thesis concerns the development and improvement of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) as well as Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs). WSN consist of interlinked, wireless devices (nodes) capable of relaying data wirelessly between the nodes. The applications of WSNs are very broad and cover both wireless fitness monitoring systems such as pulse watches or wireless temperature monitoring of buildings, among others.

The topics investigated in the work presented within this thesis covers antenna design, wireless propagation environment evaluation and modeling, adaptive antenna control and wireless nodes system design and evaluation. In order to provide an end-user suitable solution for wireless nodes the devices require both small form factor and good performance in order to be competitive on the marked and thus the main part of this thesis focuses on techniques developed and data collected to help achieve these goals. 

Several different prototype systems have been developed which have been used to measure data by the Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), GKN Aerospace Sweden AB, the Swedish Transport Administration. The system developed with GKN Aerospace was used to do real-time test measurements inside a running RM12 jet engine and required a substantial amount of measurements, environmental modeling and system validation in order to properly design a wireless system suitable for the harsh and fast fading environment inside a jet engine. For FOI improvements were made on a wearable wireless body area network initially developed during the authors master thesis work. Refinements included work on new generation wireless nodes, antenna packaging and node-supported diversity techniques.

Work and papers regarding the design of different types of antennas suitable for wireless nodes are presented. The primary constraints on the presented antennas are the limited electrical size. The types of antennas developed include electrically small helix antennas manufactured both on stretchable substrates consisting of a PDMS substrate with Galinstan as the liquid metal conductors, screen printed silver ink for helix antennas and conformal dual patch antennas for wireless sensor nodes. Other standard type antennas are included on the wireless sensors as well.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2015. , 97 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1216
Keyword [en]
Wireless Sensor Networks, Body Area Networks, Jet Turbine, Electrically Small Antennas, Antenna Theory, WISENET, Wisejet
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Embedded Systems Communication Systems Telecommunications
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Microwave Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-239400ISBN: 978-91-554-9136-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-239400DiVA: diva2:776123
Public defence
2015-02-13, Ångströmslaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-01-23 Created: 2014-12-22 Last updated: 2015-03-09
List of papers
1. A Tunable Spherical Cap Microfluidic Electrically Small Antenna
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Tunable Spherical Cap Microfluidic Electrically Small Antenna
2013 (English)In: Small, ISSN 1613-6810, E-ISSN 1613-6829, Vol. 9, no 19, 3230-3234 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present a novel microfluidic three-dimensional elec- trically small antenna (ESA). It is easy to construct simply by pneumatically inflating a planar stretchable liquid alloy microfluidic antenna into a spherical cap. Its center frequency is tuned when it is inflated; demonstrating combined high efficiency and a wide tunable frequency range around its hemispherical shape.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Weinheim: John Wiley & Sons, 2013
Keyword
microfluidic electronics
National Category
Materials Chemistry Materials Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Materials Science; Engineering Science with specialization in Microsystems Technology; Engineering Science with specialization in Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-198541 (URN)10.1002/smll.201300070 (DOI)000327899900007 ()
Projects
VR Forass to Wu, and Wisenet
Available from: 2013-04-19 Created: 2013-04-19 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
2. Antenna diversity with opportunistic combining for ASk systems with single channel receivers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Antenna diversity with opportunistic combining for ASk systems with single channel receivers
2010 (English)In: Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), 2010, 1-5 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-138838 (URN)
Conference
Fourth European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP)
Projects
WISENET
Available from: 2010-12-20 Created: 2010-12-20 Last updated: 2016-04-18Bibliographically approved
3. Empirical Tests of Wireless Sensor Network in Jet Engine Including Characterization of Radio Wave Propagation and Fading
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Empirical Tests of Wireless Sensor Network in Jet Engine Including Characterization of Radio Wave Propagation and Fading
2014 (English)In: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, ISSN 1536-1225, E-ISSN 1548-5757, Vol. 13, 762-765 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Keyword
Wireless Sensor Network, Jet engine, Propagation
National Category
Communication Systems Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Embedded Systems
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-218889 (URN)10.1109/LAWP.2014.2316311 (DOI)000335565400002 ()
Available from: 2014-02-19 Created: 2014-02-19 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
4. Modelling of EM Propagation in Simplified Jet Turbine Structure using Helical Rays
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling of EM Propagation in Simplified Jet Turbine Structure using Helical Rays
2015 (English)In: Electronics Letters, ISSN 0013-5194, E-ISSN 1350-911X, Vol. 51, no 11, 809-811 p.Article in journal, Letter (Refereed) Published
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-239397 (URN)10.1049/el.2014.4465 (DOI)000354773500005 ()
Available from: 2014-12-22 Created: 2014-12-22 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
5. Hemispherical coil electrically small antenna made by stretchable conductors printing and plastic thermoforming
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hemispherical coil electrically small antenna made by stretchable conductors printing and plastic thermoforming
2015 (English)In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 25, no 2, 027004Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A production scalable technique is presented to make hemispherical coil antennas by using a stretchable printed silver paste conductor and plastic thermoforming. To ease the fabrication process an unbalanced feed-structure was designed for solderless mounting on conductive materials. The manufactured antenna had a resonance frequency of 2.467 GHz with a reflection coefficient of -33.8 dB. The measured and simulated radiation patterns corresponded to that of monopole structure and the measured efficiency was 40%.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Microsystems Technology; Engineering Science with specialization in Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-238904 (URN)10.1088/0960-1317/25/2/027004 (DOI)000349106800024 ()
Available from: 2014-12-17 Created: 2014-12-17 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
6. Measurements and Simulations of Wave Propagation for Wireless Sensor Networks in Jet Engine Turbines
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measurements and Simulations of Wave Propagation for Wireless Sensor Networks in Jet Engine Turbines
2011 (English)In: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, ISSN 1536-1225, E-ISSN 1548-5757, Vol. 10, 1139-1142 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this letter, measurements and simulations of wave propagation inside a jet engine fan have been performed. The investigation was done using both EM simulations of different cases of propagation inside the engine and by measuring the corresponding cases inside a half-scale model of a jet engine fan. The average path loss was calculated, and the shapes of the fading distributions were extracted. The time between two consecutive fading dips was measured in the empirical part. Measurements were performed with engine speeds of both 30 and 60 rpm and were shown to be linearly scalable from 60 rpm to full speed of 10 000 rpm. The results showed an average path loss of about 55 dB. When scaling the measurements from 60 rpm to full-speed rotation of about 10 000 rpm, the fading was so severe that the time slot between consecutive fading dips was limited to 290 mu s.

Keyword
Communication channels, electromagnetic propagation, propagation losses, radio communication, radiowave propagation
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-161778 (URN)10.1109/LAWP.2011.2171309 (DOI)000296260200004 ()
Available from: 2011-11-21 Created: 2011-11-17 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
7. Conformal dual patch antenna for diversity based sensor nodes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conformal dual patch antenna for diversity based sensor nodes
2012 (English)In: Electronics Letters, ISSN 0013-5194, E-ISSN 1350-911X, Vol. 48, no 6, 306-307 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A conformal antenna structure based on dual triangular patches is presented. The dual antennas are designed to be used in diversity based sensor node applications and are integrated in the enclosure of the node. The internal shielded enclosure houses the required electronics and power supply. Simulations and measurements show acceptable diversity performance and efficiency in the second resonance mode.

National Category
Engineering and Technology Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Microwave Technology; Engineering Science with specialization in Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-172827 (URN)10.1049/el.2012.0088 (DOI)000301439000005 ()
Projects
WISENET
Funder
Vinnova, WISENET
Available from: 2012-04-17 Created: 2012-04-16 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
8. Performance Evaluation of a Conformal Dual Patch Antenna in an Indoor Environment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance Evaluation of a Conformal Dual Patch Antenna in an Indoor Environment
2013 (English)In: 7th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), 2013, 439-442 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The performance of a conformal dual patch antenna design for wireless sensor networks were measured and evaluated in a real world multi-scattering environment. Both simulated and measured radiation patterns when using the antenna as a two element phased array were measured and corresponded well. The environment was measured and show strong fading characteristics. The measured data shows that the proposed structure gives a distinct advantage to the nodes communication compared to single element antennas while keeping the form factor suitable for integration of embedded hardware.

Series
Proceedings of the European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, ISSN 2164-3342
Keyword
Antenna, Array, Reconfigurable, Conformal, Sensor, WSN, Indoor, Steerable, Performance
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Microwave Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-198643 (URN)000327126000100 ()978-88-907018-3-2 (ISBN)
Conference
7th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), APR 08-12, 2013, Gothenburg, SWEDEN
Projects
WISENET
Available from: 2013-04-22 Created: 2013-04-22 Last updated: 2015-03-09Bibliographically approved
9. Diversity Techniques for Robustness and Power Awareness in Wireless Sensor Systems for Railroad Transport Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Diversity Techniques for Robustness and Power Awareness in Wireless Sensor Systems for Railroad Transport Applications
2011 (English)In: Sustainable Wireless Sensor Networks / [ed] Winston Seah and Yen Kheng Tan, InTech Open Publishers , 2011, 1, 75-95 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
InTech Open Publishers, 2011 Edition: 1
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-159204 (URN)978-953-307-297-5 (ISBN)
Projects
wisenet
Available from: 2011-09-25 Created: 2011-09-25 Last updated: 2016-04-20Bibliographically approved
10. Wireless body area network (WBAN) monitoring application system (MASS) for personal monitoring
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wireless body area network (WBAN) monitoring application system (MASS) for personal monitoring
Show others...
2009 (English)In: 6th edition of the International Workshop on Wearable Micro and Nano Technologies for Personalised Health (pHealth 2009), Oslo, Norge, 2009Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Microwave Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-121065 (URN)
Conference
6th edition of the International Workshop on Wearable Micro and Nano Technologies for Personalised Health (pHealth 2009), Oslo, Norge
Projects
WISENET
Available from: 2010-03-18 Created: 2010-03-18 Last updated: 2016-04-14Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
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Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
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  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf