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An Evaluation of Tail Loss Recovery Mechanisms for TCP
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science. (DISCO)ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2765-7873
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science. (DISCO)
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science. (DISCO)
Simula Research Laboratory.
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2015 (English)In: Computer communication review, ISSN 0146-4833, E-ISSN 1943-5819, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 6-11Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Interactive applications do not require more bandwidth to go faster. Instead, they require less latency. Unfortunately, the current design of transport protocols such as TCP limits possible latency reductions. In this paper we evaluate and compare different loss recovery enhancements to fight tail loss latency. The two recently proposed mechanisms "RTO Restart" (RTOR) and "Tail Loss Probe" (TLP) as well as a new mechanism that applies the logic of RTOR to the TLP timer management (TLPR) are considered. The results show that the relative performance of RTOR and TLP when tail loss occurs is scenario dependent, but with TLP having potentially larger gains. The TLPR mechanism reaps the benefits of both approaches and in most scenarios it shows the best performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
USA: ACM Special Interest Group on Computer Science Education, 2015. Vol. 45, no 1, p. 6-11
Keyword [en]
TCP; Congestion Control; Latency; Packet Loss; Recovery
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-34860DOI: 10.1145/2717646.2717648ISI: 000354951000002OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-34860DiVA: diva2:775343
Available from: 2015-01-01 Created: 2015-01-01 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Towards a Low Latency Internet: Understanding and Solutions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards a Low Latency Internet: Understanding and Solutions
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Networking research and development have historically focused on increasing network throughput and path resource utilization, which particularly helped bulk applications such as file transfer and video streaming. Recent over-provisioning in the core of the Internet has facilitated the use of interactive applications like interactive web browsing, audio/video conferencing, multi- player online gaming and financial trading applications. Although the bulk applications rely on transferring data as fast as the network permits, interactive applications consume rather little bandwidth, depending instead on low latency. Recently, there has been an increasing concern in reducing latency in networking research, as the responsiveness of interactive applications directly influences the quality of experience.

To appreciate the significance of latency-sensitive applications for today's Internet, we need to understand their traffic pattern and quantify their prevalence. In this thesis, we quantify the proportion of potentially latency-sensitive traffic and its development over time. Next, we show that the flow start-up mechanism in the Internet is a major source of latency for a growing proportion of traffic, as network links get faster.

The loss recovery mechanism in the transport protocol is another major source of latency. To improve the performance of latency-sensitive applications, we propose and evaluate several modifications in TCP. We also investigate the possibility of prioritization at the transport layer to improve the loss recovery. The idea is to trade reliability for timeliness. We particularly examine the applicability of PR-SCTP with a focus on event logging. In our evaluation, the performance of PR-SCTP is largely influenced by small messages. We analyze the inefficiency in detail and propose several solutions. We particularly implement and evaluate one solution that utilizes the Non-Renegable Selective Acknowledgments (NR-SACKs) mechanism, which has been proposed for standardization in the IETF. According to the results, PR-SCTP with NR-SCAKs significantly improves the application performance in terms of low latency as compared to SCTP and TCP.

Abstract [en]

Interactive applications such as web browsing, audio/video conferencing, multi-player online gaming and financial trading applications do not benefit (much) from more bandwidth. Instead, they depend on low latency. Latency is a key determinant of user experience. An increasing concern for reducing latency is therefore currently being observed among the networking research community and industry.

In this thesis, we quantify the proportion of potentially latency-sensitive traffic and its development over time. Next, we show that the flow start-up mechanism in the Internet is a major source of latency for a growing proportion of traffic, as network links get faster.

The loss recovery mechanism in the transport protocol is another major source of latency. To improve the performance of latency-sensitive applications, we propose and evaluate several modifications in TCP. We also investigate the possibility of prioritization at the transport layer to improve the loss recovery. The idea is to trade reliability for timeliness. We particularly examine the applicability of PR-SCTP with a focus on event logging. In our evaluation, the performance of PR-SCTP is largely influenced by small messages. We analyze the inefficiency in detail and propose several solutions. We particularly implement and evaluate one solution that utilizes the Non-Renegable Selective Acknowledgments (NR-SACKs) mechanism, which has been proposed for standardization in the IETF. According to the results, PR-SCTP with NR-SCAKs significantly improves the application performance in terms of low latency as compared to SCTP and TCP.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstad University Press, 2015. p. 39
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 41
Keyword
latency; traffic classification; slow-start; TCP; SCTP; PR-SCTP; NR-SACKs; event logging; performance evaluation
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-37487 (URN)978-91-7063-659-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-11-12, Lagerlöfsalen, 1A305, Karlstads universitet, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-10-16 Created: 2015-08-14 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved

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