Derivation of the Lindblad Equation for Open Quantum Systems and Its Application to Mathematical Modeling of the Process of Decision Making
Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
In the theory of open quantum systems, a quantum Markovian master equation, the Lindblad equation, reveals the most general form for the generators of a quantum dynamical semigroup. In this thesis, we present the derivation of the Lindblad equation and several examples of Lindblad equations with their analytic and numerical solutions. The graphs of the numerical solutions illuminate the dynamics and the stabilization as time increases. The corresponding von Neumann entropies are also presented as graphs. Moreover, to illustrate the difference between the dynamics of open and isolated systems, we prove two theorems about the conditions for stabilization of the solutions of the von Neumann equation which describes the dynamics of the density matrix of open quantum systems. It shows that the von Neumann equation is not satisfied for modelling dynamics in the cognitive contextin general. Instead, we use the Lindblad equation to model the mental dynamics of the players in the game of the 2-player prisoner’s dilemma to explain the irrational behaviors of the players. The stabilizing solution will lead the mental dynamics to an equilibrium state, which is regarded as the termination of the comparison process for a decision maker. The resulting pure strategy is selected probabilistically by performing a quantum measurement. We also discuss two important concepts, quantum decoherence and quantum Darwinism. Finally, we mention a classical Neural Network Master Equation introduced by Cowan and plan our further works on an analogous version for the quantum neural network by using the Lindblad equation.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. , 48 p.
Quantum-like model, Decision making, Lindblad equation, Prisoner's Dilemma, Disjunction effect
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-38711OAI: oai:DiVA.org:lnu-38711DiVA: diva2:773923
Subject / course
Applied Mahtematics Programme, 180 credits
Khrennikov, Andrei, Professor
Hilbert, Astrid, Senior Lecturer