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Designing for Interactional Empowerment
KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. SICS.
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis further defines how to reach Interactional Empowerment through design for users. Interactional Empowerment is an interaction design program within the general area of affective interaction, focusing on the users’ abil­ity to reflect, express themselves and engage in profound meaning-making.

This has been explored through design of three systems eMoto, Affective Di­ary and Affective Health, which all mirror users’ emotions or bodily reactions in interaction in some way. From these design processes and users’ encoun­ters with the system I have extracted one experiential quality, Evocative Bal­ance, and several embryos to experiential qualities. Evocative Balance refers to interaction experiences in which familiarity and resonance with lived expe­rience are balanced with suggestiveness and openness to interpretation. The development of the concept of evocative balance is reported over the course of the three significant design projects, each exploring aspects of Interaction­al Empowerment in terms of representing bodily experiences in reflective and communicative settings. By providing accounts of evocative balance in play in the three projects, analyzing a number of other relevant interaction design experiments, and discussing evocative balance in relation to existing con­cepts within affective interaction, we offer a multi-grounded construct that can be appropriated by other interaction design researchers and designers.

This thesis aims to mirror a designerly way of working, which is recognized by its multigroundedness, focus on the knowledge that resides in the design pro­cess, a slightly different approach to the view of knowledge, its extension and its rigour. It provides a background to the state-of-the-art in the design communi­ty and exemplifies these theoretical standpoints in the design processes of the three design cases. This practical example of how to extend a designer’s knowledge can work as an example for design researchers working in a similar way.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. , x, 134 p.
Series
TRITA-CSC-A, ISSN 1653-5723 ; 2014:20
Series
SICS DISSERTATION SERIES, ISSN 1101-1335 ; 71
National Category
Design
Research subject
Human-computer Interaction
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-158016ISBN: 978-91-7595-409-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-158016DiVA: diva2:773401
Public defence
2015-03-20, D2, Lindstedtsvägen 5, KTH, Stockholm, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20150202

Available from: 2015-02-02 Created: 2014-12-18 Last updated: 2015-03-06Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A Foundation for Emotional Expressivity
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Foundation for Emotional Expressivity
2005 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

To express emotions to others in mobile text messaging in our view require designs that can both capture some of the ambiguity and subtleness that characterizes emotional interaction and keep the media specific qualities. Through the use of a body movement analysis and a dimensional model of emotion experiences, we arrived at a design for a mobile messaging service, eMoto. The service makes use of the sub-symbolic expressions; colors, shapes and animations, for expressing emotions in an open-ended way. Here we present the design process and a user study of those expressions, where the results show that the use of these sub-symbolic expressions can work as a foundation to use as a creative tool, but still allowing for the communication to be situated. The inspiration taken from body movements proved to be very useful as a design input. It was also reflected in the way our subjects described the expressions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AIGA, 2005
Keyword
Affect, Handheld Devices and Mobile Computing, Interaction Design, User-Centered Design/Human-Centered Design, User studies
National Category
Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-157920 (URN)
Conference
DUX, Designing for User Experience
Note

QC 20141222

Available from: 2014-12-17 Created: 2014-12-17 Last updated: 2015-02-02Bibliographically approved
2. In situ informants exploring an emotional mobile messaging system in their everyday practice
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In situ informants exploring an emotional mobile messaging system in their everyday practice
2007 (English)In: International journal of human-computer studies, ISSN 1071-5819, E-ISSN 1095-9300, Vol. 65, no 4, 388-403 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We have designed and built a mobile emotional messaging system named eMoto. With it, users can compose messages through using emotion-related gestures as input, rendering a message background of colours, shapes and animations expressing the emotional content. The design intent behind eMoto was that it should be engaging physically, intellectually and socially, and allow users to express themselves emotionally in all those dimensions, involving them in an affective loop experience. In here, we describe the user-centred design process that lead to the eMoto system, but focus mainly on the final study where we let five friends use eMoto for two weeks. The study method, which we name in situ informants, helped us enter and explore the subjective and distributed experiences of use, as well as how emotional communication unfolds in everyday practice when channelled through a system like eMoto. The in situ informants are on the one hand users of eMoto, but also spectators, that is close friends who observe and document user behaviour. Design conclusions include the need to support the sometimes fragile communication rhythm that friendships require – expressing memories of the past, sharing the present and planning for the future. We saw that emotions are not singular state that exist within one person alone, but permeates the total situation, changing and drifting as a process between the two friends communicating. We also gained insights into the under-estimated but still important physical, sensual aspects of emotional communication. Experiences of the in situ informants method include the need to involve participants in the interpretation of the data obtained, as well as establishing a closer connection with the spectators.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Academic Press, 2007
Keyword
Affective interaction, Evaluation method, User study, Mobile application
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-157921 (URN)10.1016/j.ijhcs.2006.11.013 (DOI)000244805300010 ()2-s2.0-33846833909 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20141222

Available from: 2014-12-17 Created: 2014-12-17 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
3. Interactional Empowerment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interactional Empowerment
2008 (English)In: CHI 2008 Proceedings - Dignity in Design, ACM Press, 2008, 647-656 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We propose that an interactional perspective on how emotion is constructed, shared and experienced, may be a good basis for designing affective interactional systems that do not infringe on privacy or autonomy, but instead empowers users. An interactional design perspective may make use of design elements such as open-ended, ambiguous, yet familiar, interaction surfaces that users can use as a basis to make sense of their own emotions and their communication with one-another. We describe the interactional view on design for emotional communication, and provide a set of orienting design concepts and methods for design and evaluation that help translate the interactional view into viable applications. From an embodied interaction theory perspective, we argue for a non-dualistic, non-reductionist view on affective interaction design.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ACM Press, 2008
Keyword
Affective Interaction, Emotional Computing, Social Factors, Interaction Design, Contextual Information
National Category
Design Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-157923 (URN)978-1-60558-011-1 (ISBN)
Conference
CHI 2008 - Dignity in Design, April 5-10, 2008, Florence, Italy
Note

Qc 20141222

Available from: 2014-12-17 Created: 2014-12-17 Last updated: 2015-02-02Bibliographically approved
4. Reflecting on the Design Process of the Affective Diary
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reflecting on the Design Process of the Affective Diary
2008 (English)In: Proeedings NordiChi, October 20-22, 2008, ACM Press, 2008, 559-564 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Affective Diary is a digital diary that makes use of bio-sensors to add some reminiscence of bodily experiences. The design process behind Affective Diary was ‘sensitive’ to three design qualities extracted from a previous project; providing cues of emotional expressivity building on familiarity, making the design open for personal expressivity and be aware of contradictions between modalities. Through the design process of Affective Diary, with frequent user involvements during the process, these design qualities became further tested, developed and refi ned. By providing a fairly detailed and refl ected description of the design process behind Affective Diary, we aim to provide other designers with inspiration on several levels: both in terms of methods used, but also in why these three design qualities are important and how to realize them. Our aim is also to provide designers with knowledge in the form that makes sense to designers: the practical link between design qualities and fi nal results.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ACM Press, 2008
Keyword
Interaction design, design process, affective interaction
National Category
Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-158012 (URN)978-1-59593-704-9 (ISBN)
Conference
NordiChi, October 20-22, 2008
Note

QC 20141222

Available from: 2014-12-18 Created: 2014-12-18 Last updated: 2015-02-02Bibliographically approved
5. Experiencing the Affective Diary
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experiencing the Affective Diary
Show others...
2009 (English)In: Journal of personal and ubiquitous computing, ISSN 1617-4917, Vol. 13, no 5, 365-378 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A diary is generally considered to be a book in which one keeps a regular record of events and experiences that have some personal significance. As such, it provides a useful means to privately express inner thoughts or to reflect on daily experiences, helping in either case to put them in perspective. Taking conventional diary keeping as our starting point, we have designed and built a digital diary, named Affective Diary, with which users can scribble their notes, but that also allows for bodily memorabilia to be recorded from body sensors and mobile media to be collected from users’ mobile phones. A premise that underlies the presented work is one that views our bodily experiences as integral to how we come to interpret and thus make sense of the world.

We present our investigations into this design space in three related lines of inquiry: (i) a theoretical grounding for affect and bodily experiences; (ii) a user-centred design process, arriving at the Affective Diary system; and (iii) an exploratory end-user study of the Affective Diary with 4 users during several weeks of use. Through these three inquiries, our overall aim has been to explore the potential of a system that interleaves the physical and cultural features of our embodied experiences and to further examine what media-specific qualities such a design might incorporate. Concerning the media-specific qualities, the key appears to be to find a suitable balance where a system does not dictate what should be interpreted and, at the same time, lends itself to enabling the user to participate in the interpretive act. In the exploratory end-user study users, for the most part, were able to identify with the body memorabilia and together with the mobile data, it enabled them to remember and reflect on their past. Two of our subjects went even further and found patterns in their own bodily reactions that caused them to learn something about themselves and even attempt to alter their own behaviours.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer-Verlag New York, 2009
Keyword
Affective Interaction, Emotional Computing, Social Factors, Interaction Design, Contextual Information
National Category
Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-158013 (URN)10.1007/s00779-008-0202-7 (DOI)000265538200004 ()2-s2.0-67349157303 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20141222

Available from: 2014-12-18 Created: 2014-12-18 Last updated: 2015-10-06Bibliographically approved
6. REFLECTING ON THE DESIGN PROCESS OF AFFECTIVE HEALTH
Open this publication in new window or tab >>REFLECTING ON THE DESIGN PROCESS OF AFFECTIVE HEALTH
2011 (English)In: Proceedings of IASDR2011, the 4th World Conference on Design Research / [ed] Roozenburg, Chen and Stappers, 2011, 1-12 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We describe the design process behind a bio-sensorbased wellness-system, named Affective Health, aimed to help users to get into biofeedback loops as well as find patterns in their bodily reactions over time. By discussing details of the design process, we provide a reflected account of the particular design we arrived at. Three design qualities are used to both generate and evaluate the different design sketches. They are, in short, (1) the design must feel familiar to users, mirroring their experience of themselves, (2) creating designs that leave space for users’ own interpretation of their body data, and (3) that the modalities used in the design does not contradict one-another, but instead harmonize, helping users to make sense of the representation. The final user encounter of the Affective Health system shows that those design qualities were indeed both useful and important to users’ experience of the interaction.

Keyword
Design research, design qualities, affective interaction
National Category
Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-158014 (URN)
Conference
IASDR, 31 October - 4 november, Delft, the Netherlands
Note

QC 20141222

Available from: 2014-12-18 Created: 2014-12-18 Last updated: 2015-02-02Bibliographically approved
7. Evocative Balance: Designing for Interactional Empowerment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evocative Balance: Designing for Interactional Empowerment
2014 (English)In: International Journal of Design, ISSN 1991-3761, E-ISSN 1994-036X, Vol. 8, no 1, 43-57 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We propose an experiential quality called evocative balance as key in designing for affective interaction that aims to empower users in and through the interaction. Evocative balance draws on the dual meaning of the word "evoke" in characterizing the user's sense that data and actions evoke familiar recollections of lived experience, yet are still open enough to evoke multiple interpretations in an ongoing process of co-constructive making of meaning. Our aim is to capture those experiences that resonate with our lived, everyday, social and bodily experiences; those experiences that we can recognise in ourselves and, through empathy, in others. We elaborate on and substantiate the meaning of this quality by means of retrospective reflection on three of our own design projects. This account provides detailed insights on how to find the balance between openness and familiarity through design.

Keyword
Experiential Quality, Interaction Design, Affective Interaction
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-155500 (URN)000342864100004 ()2-s2.0-84899800978 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20141110

Available from: 2014-11-10 Created: 2014-11-06 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
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  • de-DE
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  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
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Output format
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