Biological effects of high energy radiation and ultra high dose rates
1991 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Recently a powerful electron accelerator, 50 MeV race-track microtron, has been taken into clinical use. This gives the opportunity to treat patients with higher x-ray and electron energies than before. Furthermore, treatments can be performed were the entire fractional dose can be delivered in parts of a second.
The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of high energy photons (up to 50 MV) was studied in vitro and in vivo. Oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) of 50 MV photons and RBE of 50 MeV electrons were investigated in vitro. Single-fraction experiments, in vitro, using V-79 Chinese hamster fibroblasts showed an RBE for 50 MV x-rays of approximately 1.1 at surviving fraction 0.01, with reference to the response to 4 MV x- rays. No significant difference in OER could be demonstrated. Fractionation experiments were carried out to establish the RBE at the clinically relevant dose level, 2 Gy. The RBE calculated for the 2 Gy/fraction experiments was 1.17. The RBEs for 20 MV x-rays and 50 MeV electrons were equal to one. In order to investigate the validity of these results, the jejunal crypt microcolony assay in mice was used to determine the RBE of 50 MV x-rays. The RBE for 50 MV x-rays in this case was estimated to be 1.06 at crypt surviving fraction 0.1. Photonuclear processes are proposed as one possible explanation to the higher RBE for 50 MV x-rays.
Several studies of biological response to ionizing radiation of high absorbed dose rates have been performed, often with conflicting results. With the aim of investigating whether a difference in effect between irradiation at high dose rates and at conventional dose rates could be verified, pulsed 50 MeV electrons from a clinical accelerator were used for experiments with ultra high dose rates (mean dose rate: 3.8 x 10^ Gy/s) in comparison to conventional (mean dose rate: 9.6 x 10"^ Gy/s). V-79 cells were irradiated in vitro under both oxic and anoxic conditions. No significant difference in relative biological effectiveness (RBE) or oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) was observed for ultra high dose rates compared to conventional dose rates.
A central issue in clinical radiobiological research is the prediction of responses to different radiation qualities. The choice of cell survival and dose response model greatly influences the results. In this context the relationship between theory and model is emphasized. Generally, the interpretations of experimental data are dependent on the model. Cell survival models are systematized with respect to their relations to radiobiological theories of cell kill. The growing knowledge of biological, physical, and chemical mechanisms is reflected in the formulation of new models. This study shows that recent modelling has been more oriented towards the stochastic fluctuations connected to radiation energy deposition. This implies that the traditional cell survival models ought to be complemented by models of stochastic energy deposition processes at the intracellular level.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet , 1991. , 44 p.
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 315
Radiobiology, 50 MV x-rays, 50 MeV electrons, in vitro, in vivo, RBE, OER, ultra high dose-rate, radiobiological models, model selection, models of stochastic processes
Cancer and Oncology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-96889ISBN: 91-7174-614-5OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-96889DiVA: diva2:769196
1991-11-21, Onkologiska klinikens föreläsningssal, 244, 2 tr., Umeå universitet, Umeå, 09:00
S. 1-44: sammanfattning, s. 47-130: 5 uppsatser2014-12-162014-12-052015-04-10Bibliographically approved
List of papers