Tungsten-Based Nanocomposites by Chemical Methods
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Tungsten based-materials find use in many different fields of engineering, particularly in applications where good temperature and/or erosion resistance is important. Nanostructuring of tungsten composites is expected to dramatically improve the materials’ properties and enhancing the performance in present applications but also enabling totally new possibilities. Nanostructured WC-Co materials have been the focus of researchers and engineers for over two decades. New fabrication methods have been developed. But, the fabrication of true nanograined WC-Co composites is still a challenge. Nanostructured tungsten-based materials for applications as plasma facing materials in fusion reactors have attracted a growing interest. This Thesis summarizes work on the development of chemical methods for the fabrication of two different types of nanostructured tungsten-based materials; WC-Co composites mainly for cutting tools applications and W-ODS materials with yttria particles, intended as plasma facing materials in fusion reactors. The approach has been to prepare powders in two steps: a) synthesis of uniform powder precursors containing ions of tungsten and cobalt or yttrium by precipitation from aqueous solutions and b) processing of the precursors into WC- or W-based nano-composite powders.
Highly homogenous W- and Co- containing precursors for WC-Co composites were prepared via two different routes. Keggin-based precursors ((NH4)8[H2Co2W11O40]) were made from sodium tungstate or ammonium metatungstate and cobalt acetate. The powder composition corresponded to 5.2 % Co in the final WC-Co material. In a second approach, paratungstate-based precursors (Cox(NH4)10-2x[H2W12O42]) were prepared from ammonium paratungstate (APT) and cobalt hydroxide with different compositions corresponding to 3.7 to 9.7 % Co in WC-Co. Both precursors were processed and sintered into uniform microstructures with fine scale (<1μm). The processing of paratungstate-based precursors was also further investigated. WC-Co powders with grains size of less than 50 nm were obtained by decreasing processing temperatures and by applying gas phase carburization.
W-ODS materials were fabricated starting from ammonium paratungstate and yttrium salts. Paratungstate-based precursors were prepared with different homogeneities and particle sizes. The degree of the chemical uniformity varied with the particle size from ca 1 to 30 μm. Tungsten trioxide hydrate-based precursors made from APT and yttrium salts under acidic conditions had higher uniformity and smaller particle size. The tungsten oxide crystallite size was decreased to a few nanometers. Yttrium was included either by doping or in a nanocomposite structure as yttrium oxalate. The nanocomposite precursor was found to be more reactive during hydrogen reduction, facilitating its conversion to pure W-Y2O3 nanopowder. The doped precursor were further processed to nanopowders and sintered to highly uniform W-1.2%Y2O3 composites.
In summary, APT was converted to highly homogenous or uniform powder precursors ofdifferent compositions. The transformations were carried out in aqueous suspensions as a water-mediated process. These precursors were processed further in to nano-sized powders and sintered to highly uniform tungsten composites with fine microstructures.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. , 46 p.
TRITA-ICT/MAP AVH, ISSN 1653-7610 ; 2014:20
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-156604OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-156604DiVA: diva2:767377
2014-12-11, Sal/hall 205, Electrum, KTH-ICT, Kista, 10:00 (English)
Engqvist, Håkan, Professor
Toprak, Muhammet S., Docent
QC 201412012014-12-012014-12-012014-12-04Bibliographically approved
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