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Om organsystemens organisation och funktion: analys av elevsvar från Sverige och Sydafrika
Linköpings universitet ; Högskolan Kristianstad.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3349-226X
2012 (Swedish)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Syftet med denna avhandling är att studera svenska och sydafrikanska elevers föreställningar om kroppens byggnad och funktion, samt hur dessa föreställningar påverkar närliggande frågeställningar. Datainsamling har skett genom att flera olika typer av enkäter samt intervjuer använts. Samtliga elever som deltog gick i årskurs nio. Det var 88 elever i den svenska och 166 i den Sydafrikanska datainsamlingen.

Resultaten visar att elever har en god förmåga att beskriva matspjälkningssystemet då de beskriver en smörgås väg genom kroppen, och de visar även god förmåga att koppla samman blodsystemet till matspjälkningsorganen för detta scenario. Däremot har eleverna svårigheter att överföra denna kunskap till ett nytt sammanhang då de skulle beskriva en värktabletts väg genom kroppen. Eleverna hade inte fått undervisning om värktablettens väg genom kroppen, så detta var ett nytt sammanhang för dem. Det visade sig vara än svårare för eleverna att koppla samman ytterligare ett organsystem, det vill säga urinorganen, när de skulle beskriva vattnets väg genom kroppen. Trots att urinorganen finns beskrivna i läroboken och eleverna hade fått undervisning om dessa. Det fanns också elever som visade icke vetenskapligt vedertagna modeller och beskrev vattnets väg genom kroppen genom att rita ett rör direkt från halsen till njuren. Dessa elever kunde inte beskriva njuren främsta funktion som är att rena blodet. En liknande studie genomfördes i fem Sydafrikanska skolor och det visade sig att den i Sverige, och i andra europeiska studier, vanliga icke vetenskapliga förklaringen med en direktkoppling mellan matspjälkningsorganen och njurarna var mycket ovanlig bland dessa elever. Nästan hälften av de sydafrikanska eleverna visade istället en föreställning om att vattnet passerar lungorna på sin väg till magsäcken. Det fanns även mindre mängd elever som även ansåg att maten skulle passera lungorna innan magsäcken. När det gäller vattenfrågan har en djupare analys gjorts på 5 av de svenska elevernas enkät- och intervjusvar. Det visade sig att elevernas föreställningar antingen var desamma eller förändrades till en mindre sofistikerad förklaringsmodell mellan enkät och intervjusvar då det gällde vattnets väg genom kroppen, detta skiljer sig från frågeställningen med smörgåsen där intervjun visade på liknande eller bättre resultat.

Abstract [en]

The purpose of this thesis is to study Swedish and South African students’ beliefs about the body and its functions, and how these ideas correlated with answers to associated questions. Data was obtained from several different types of surveys and interviews. All the students who participated in the studies were in grade nine. There were 88 students in the Swedish data collection and 166 in the South African data collection.

The results show that students have the ability to describe the digestive system when they describe a sandwich pathway through the body, and also the ability to link the circulatory system to the digestive system. However, students have difficulties to transfer this knowledge to a new context when they were asked to describe a painkiller’s pathway through the body. The painkiller pathway through the body had not been taught in school. But it was even more difficult for students to connect three organ systems, namely the excretory system, as was the case when they were asked to describe the pathway of water through the body. Although the excretory system is described in the textbook and the students had been taught about the same. There were also students using non-scientific ideas and drew a pipe directly from the throat to the kidney. These students found it more difficult to understand the function of the kidneys. A similar study was conducted in five South African schools where it was found, contrary to Sweden and other European studies, students describing that water is passing through the lungs on its way to the stomach, some students also said that the food would pass through the lungs before the stomach. Some of the students clarified that water and for that matter, the food, passes the lungs to purify it. A deeper analysis has been done regarding the water on five Swedish students' questionnaire and interview responses. It turned out that students' ides were either the same or changed to a less sophisticated explanation in the interview responses compared to the answer in the questionnaires when it came to the pathway of water through the body, this is different from the question of the sandwich where the interview showed similar or more sophisticated results.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2012. , 102 p.
Series
Studies in Science and Technology Education, ISSN 1652-5051 ; 51
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences, Pedagogics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-38060ISBN: 978-91-7519-960-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:lnu-38060DiVA: diva2:761427
Public defence
2012-03-16, Aulan, Hus 7, Högskolan Kristianstad, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-11-06 Created: 2014-11-06 Last updated: 2016-04-28Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Elevers föreställningar om kroppens organ och kroppens hälsa utifrån ett skolsammanhang
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Elevers föreställningar om kroppens organ och kroppens hälsa utifrån ett skolsammanhang
2008 (Swedish)Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Denna avhandling har fokus på 88 elevers föreställningar om vad som händer i kroppen då de äter en smörgås, dricker vatten och sväljer en värktablett. Sedan har jag studerat hur dessa föreställningar påverkar deras kunskaper vad det gäller kroppens fysiologi och deras ställningstagande i hälsofrågor. Enkäter av olika slag samt intervjuer har använts vid datainsamlingen. Studien bekräftar till vissa delar den forskning som är gjord i främst Europa. Det som är nytt och tidigare inte har publicerats är det som fokuseras i denna sammanfattning av licentiat avhandling - Elevers föreställningar om kroppens organ och kroppens hälsa utifrån ett skolsammanhang.

Eleverna hade mycket svårt att se sambanden mellan de olika organsystemen i kroppen. Detta visade sig då eleverna ombads att beskriva hur vattnen tar sig genom kroppen. Studien visade det att endast ett fåtal elever kunde länka ihop: matspjälkningsystemet - blodsystem - njurarna. Det var något lättare om än inte enkelt för eleverna att överföra sin kunskap om matspjälkningssystemets funktion, som i fallet då de beskrev en smörgåsens väg genom kroppen, och överföra denna kunskap till hur en värktablett transporteras genom kroppen. Eleverna har visat att de har lättare att överföra kunskap från ett sammanhang till ett annat, som i fallen smörgåsen och värktabletten, än att föra samman flera olika organsystem som i fallet med vattnets väg genom kroppen.

En grupp elever beskrev ett system för vattens transport i kroppen som helt saknar naturvetenskaplig förankring. Dessa elever ritade ett rör som transporterade vatten direkt från munnen ner till njurarna. Detta hade konsekvenser för hur eleverna sedan svarade på andra frågor, dessa elever hade svårare att förstå njurens funktion och de hade också mer vardagsnära förklaringar exempelvis på frågan varför vi människor svettas.

När det gäller hälsorelaterade frågor kunde man se att några elever anser att kroppen lagrar näring och energi då de avstår en måltid. Detta resultat är intressant då de har en annan syn på hela näringsupptagningen i kroppen än den vedertagna naturvetenskapliga förklaringen.

En grupp elever som hade en mera utvecklad förståelse av hur värktabletter transporteras genom kroppen, var de som främst ansåg att värktabletter kunde ersättas med smärtstillande krämer. Denna grupp angav också spontant färre alternativ för att lindra smärta, så som massage etc.

 Över hälften av de eleverna som intervjuades ansåg att det fanns näring vatten men de kunde inte närmare precisera vad denna näring skulle bestå av. Den andra mindre hälften ansåg antingen att det inte fanns näring i vattnet eller angav olika mineraler och grundämnen. Jag fann också en föreställning bland eleverna om att man måste dricka vatten för att bekämpa bakterier.

När eleverna tillfrågades vad de ansåg att de fått sin kunskap om kropp och hälsa ifrån fann man skolan som den absolut viktigaste källan och där efter föräldrarna och på tredje plats TV:n. Andra alternativ som Internet, tidningar och så vidare var det betydlig färre elever som angav som kunskapskällor.

Abstract [en]

The focus point of this thesis lies on 88 pupils’ idea of what happens when we eat a sandwich, drink water or swallow a painkiller. I have analyzed how these ideas affect their knowledge regarding the physiology of the body, and regarding health issues.

The study confirms some parts of the research already carried out, principally in Europe, but it is the new and never before published research that I discuss in this summary of my licentiate's dissertation. The pupils were asked what happens in the body when you drink water. It was revealed that one group of pupils had an idea about an alternative system for fluids. These pupils drew a tube from the mouth connected directly to the kidneys. These pupils had troubles understanding the function of the kidney, and they also had more simple explanations to why, for example, humans sweat.

Regarding water’s way through the body, some pupils had difficulties showing the connection between the digestive system, the blood circulation system and the kidneys. It was somewhat easier for the pupils to transfer their knowledge about the function of the digestive system regarding a sandwich's path through the body in relation to what happens if you swallow a painkiller. In these cases it was easier for the pupils to transfer their knowledge from one context to another, as in the case with the sandwich and the painkiller, than to connect different organ systems, as in the case with the water's path through the body.

Regarding health related issues, it was revealed that a few students believed that the body stores nutrition and energy when they skip a meal. This result is interesting since they had a different view on the assimilation of food in the body than the accepted scientific explanation.

The pupils with a more advanced understanding of a painkiller’s way through the body were those who believed that pills primarily could be replaced by pain-relieving creams. This group spontaneously gave fewer alternatives to painkillers than other pupils.

Over half of the interviewed pupils believed that there is nutrition in water, but they were unable to specify what this nutrition would consist of. The rest of the pupils believed either that there was no nutrition in water, or specified different minerals and elements. There was also an idea that you have to drink water to fight off bacteria.  

When the pupils were asked where they thought their knowledge about body and health came from, they gave school as the primary source, the parents as the secondary source, and TV as the third source. Other alternatives like the Internet, newspapers etc. were less frequent.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2008. 125 p.
Series
Studies in Science and Technology Education, ISSN 1652-5051 ; 25
Keyword
Science of education, Human body, Lower secondary school, Understanding of the human body, Health, Digestive organs, Excretions organs, Painkiller, Naturvetenskapernas didaktik, förståelse, grundskolans senare del, människokroppen, hälsa, matspjälkning, utsöndringsorgan, värktablett
National Category
Didactics
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-38061 (URN)978-91-7393-761-0 (ISBN)
Presentation
2008-11-07, 06-315 Högskolan Kristianstad, Högskolan Kristianstad, Kristianstad, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-11-06 Created: 2014-11-06 Last updated: 2016-04-28Bibliographically approved
2. Students' ideas about the human body and their ability to transfer knowledge between related scenarios
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Students' ideas about the human body and their ability to transfer knowledge between related scenarios
2012 (English)In: European Journal of Health and Biology Education, ISSN 2165-8722, Vol. 1, no 1 & 2, 3-29 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Analyses of students’ ideas about the organ system in the human body and how these relate to their thoughts about living a healthy life are presented. The study concerns 9th grade students (15/16 years) in Sweden. The empirical data consists of drawings and answers to written questions, both open and multiple-choice, and interviews with students and teachers. Comparing explanations of a well known scenario (eating a sandwich) to other that are less often discussed (taking a painkiller and drinking water) we report that it is difficult for the students to transfer knowledge of pathways in the digestive system shown in explanations of the sandwich-scenario to the other scenarios. Most difficulties are shown for explanations of the drinking of water, since these explanations require connection of three different organ systems . More than half of the interviewed students believed that there is nutritious substance in water, but most of them were unable to specify what it would be. The students with the most developed understanding of the painkiller pathway were satisfied with taking medical substances to elude pain, and were not interested in other alternatives.

Keyword
students’ ideas, organ system, painkiller, horizontal transfer
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences, Pedagogics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-38074 (URN)
Available from: 2014-11-06 Created: 2014-11-06 Last updated: 2016-04-28Bibliographically approved
3. Fem elevers föreställningar om organsystem: vad händer i kroppen när vi dricker vatten?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fem elevers föreställningar om organsystem: vad händer i kroppen när vi dricker vatten?
2011 (Swedish)In: NorDiNa: Nordic Studies in Science Education, ISSN 1504-4556, E-ISSN 1894-1257, Vol. 7, no 2, 160-178 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

It has earlier been shown on a group level that it is difficult for 9th grade students (15-16 years old) in a Swedish school to understand how water is transported in the human body. The detailed analysis of five Swedish students in the 9th and final year of compulsory school concerning their ideas about water transportation is presented here. The empirical data consists of drawings, answers to a questionnaire with both open ended and multiple-choice questions, and student interviews. The analysis shows that all the students struggle to produce explanations involving the three organ systems: digestive, blood and excretion systems and they seem to use a variety of explanatory models as basis for their reasoning. Possible ways of understanding this are discussed together with implications for future teaching

National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences, Pedagogics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-38073 (URN)
Available from: 2014-11-06 Created: 2014-11-06 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
4. Similarities and differences in students' ideas about the human body and health in South Africa and Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Similarities and differences in students' ideas about the human body and health in South Africa and Sweden
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In both Sweden and South Africa, the science curriculum for the secondary level emphasizes learning about the functioning of the human body. Both curricula also emphasize the importance of living a healthy life. In this paper the focus is on how students’ ideas about the human body are constituted in explanations of three different scenarios, and in what way the students are transferring explanations between these scenarios. The study surveyed 161 9th grade students in five different schools in South Africa, and discusses the results in perspective of a previous study involving 88 students in Sweden. In both countries issues about body and health are discussed in several different subjects in school. The same data collection methods were used in both countries: drawings, written questions (open-ended and multiple-choice items), and interviews with selected students. The questions emerge from three scenarios: what happens in the body when you eat an open sandwich, drink water, and swallow a painkiller. We report that it is difficult for the students to horizontally transfer knowledge of the digestive system to other less well-known scenarios. In comparing the use of three systems in the painkiller-scenario to the horizontal transfer between the sandwichand the painkiller-scenarios we see that the difference is much less pronounced in South African results compared to the Swedish study. There are more similarities than differences between the results of this South Africa study and results obtained in Europe, but there are also differences especially with regard to non-scientific ideas about the human body.

Keyword
Students’ ideas, organ systems, horizontal and vertical transfer
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences, Pedagogics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-38075 (URN)
Available from: 2013-01-14 Created: 2014-11-06 Last updated: 2016-04-28Bibliographically approved

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