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Productivity Improvements in Construction Site Operations through Lean Thinking and Wireless Real-Time Control
Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1974-6278
2014 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of a quarry is to extract rock material to deliver gravels, cement and asphalt to its customers. These products are important input to the construction and maintenance of road infrastructure, buildings and more. The operation of quarry and road work sites is similar to factory production, since it contains sequential production processes, tasks and activities to produce the output product. Compared to the factory, the quarry and road work processes are generally not synchronized and controlled towards the overall throughput in real-time. Some sites control parts of the production but do generally not utilize real-time technologies for the whole site and all its activities. This fact indicates a general improvement potential in increased productivity, but also unsolved challenges for the same reason.

 

This thesis investigate how Lean thinking utilizing real-time control and wireless communication can be used to improve productivity and safety in the operation of quarry and road construction. The main overall contribution is the identified operational improvements, its use cases, the system design constraints and challenges as well as assessed impact in productivity, energy efficiency and safety if introducing wireless real-time control to the site operation.

 

The results include the presentation and demonstration of a developed method based on Lean value stream mapping, for identifying wastes in sequential processes and activities including mobile machines. Further it investigates the performance and evaluates how the latest developments of wireless communication and vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANET) can be utilized within the quarry and road construction operation. The main system requirements and constraints are identified and the tradeoffs and gains in terms of system design, communication coverage, energy consumption and safety for the identified use cases are presented.

Abstract [sv]

Bergtäckter uppfyller viktiga funktioner eftersom de producerar olika typer av stenkross, cement och asfaltsprodukter nödvändiga för alla typer av byggnationer såsom vägar, tunnlar, broar och byggnader och dess underhåll.  Bergtäckt och vägarbetsprocessen består likt en industriell produktionsanläggning av sekventiella aktiviteter för att producera slutprodukten.  Men i motsats till moderna produktionsanläggningar så är inte alla aktiviteter och maskiner styrda mot genomflödet för anläggningen, vilket gör att aktiviteter med överkapacitet genererar kostnader i form av lager och onödig resursåtgång. Detta faktum indikerar en potential i produktivitetsförbättring för dessa segment, men också olösta utmaningar.

 

Den här uppsatsen utreder hur den inom produktionsteknik välkända Lean filosofin tillsammans med den senaste utvecklingen av trådlösa styrsystem kan användas för att förbättra produktivitet och säkerhet för bergtäckts och vägarbetssegmentet. Det huvudsakliga bidraget är identifierade förbättringar av produktivitet och säkerhet i den operativa verksamheten, dess användarfall, systemdesignens komponenter, utmaningar och begränsningar vid introduktion av trådlösa styrsystem.

 

Resultatet inkluderar redogörelsen av en utvecklad och demonstrerad metodik baserad på Lean - värdeflödesanalys för att identifiera slöseri i operativ verksamhet inkluderande mobila maskiner och fordon. Dessutom undersöker och utvärderar uppsatsen prestandan och användbarhet av den senaste utvecklingen av trådlösa kommunikationssystem baserat på ad-hoc nätverk för vägfordon. De övergripande systemkraven identifieras och nödvändiga avvägningar diskuteras i form av systemdesign, kommunikationsprestanda, kostnad, energibesparingar och säkerhetsförbättringar för segmenten.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University , 2014.
Series
Mälardalen University Press Licentiate Theses, ISSN 1651-9256 ; 187
National Category
Computer Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-26310ISBN: 978-91-7485-173-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-26310DiVA: diva2:759155
Presentation
2014-12-16, Gamma, Mälardalens högskola, Västerås, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
ITS-EASY
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2014-10-29 Created: 2014-10-29 Last updated: 2014-11-20Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Using wireless communication to improve road safety and quality of service at road construction work sites (Poster)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using wireless communication to improve road safety and quality of service at road construction work sites (Poster)
2012 (English)In: 2012 IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference: Proceeding, IEEE , 2012, 152-156 p.Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper investigates how wireless communication and vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) based technologies can be applied in relation to road construction work sites to improve safety and increase efficiency and sustainability. It discusses how to design the flow of data for a number of functions and how to operate the functions at the work site even at low VANET penetration rates. The applications described identify the potential in increased productivity at a road construction site and how increased visibility of site activities impact on traffic and improved road safety. It also highlights important implementation considerations and the need of availability and utilization of open standards for this purpose. © 2012 IEEE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2012
Series
IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference, VNC, ISSN 2157-9857
Keyword
Cooperative Systems, ETSI-G5, M2X, Road construction work site, V2X, VANET, Vehicular Communication, Wireless Communication
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-18333 (URN)10.1109/VNC.2012.6407424 (DOI)2-s2.0-84873948532 (Scopus ID)9781467349963 (ISBN)
Conference
2012 IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference, VNC 2012, 14 November 2012 through 16 November 2012, Seoul
Available from: 2013-03-04 Created: 2013-03-04 Last updated: 2014-11-20Bibliographically approved
2. LEAN METHOD TO IDENTIFY IMPROVEMENTS FOR OPERATION CONTROL AT QUARRY SITES
Open this publication in new window or tab >>LEAN METHOD TO IDENTIFY IMPROVEMENTS FOR OPERATION CONTROL AT QUARRY SITES
2013 (English)In: 30th International Symposium of Automation and Robotics in Construction and Mining (ISARC 2013), 2013Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The operation of Quarry and Aggregate sites are similar to factory production, since it contains sequential production processes, tasks and activities to produce the output product. Compared to the plant though, the quarry processes are generally not synchronized and controlled towards the overall throughput of the site in real time. Some quarries control parts of the production but do generally not utilize real-time technologies for the whole site and all its activities. This fact indicates a general improvement potential in increased productivity at quarry sites, but also unsolved challenges for the same reason. The main contribution of this paper is the presentation of a Lean based method for how to describe the processes to identify control improvement potential within a site. The aim of the identified improvements is to increase overall site productivity by optimizing site, fleet and machine utilization towards the overall throughput, and minimizing operational expenses and inventories. Further the paper exemplifies the methodÂ’s usability with field studies at operational quarry plants successfully identifying and quantifying potential wastes and improvements. In addition the identified productivity improvements based on increased control and automation indicate challenges and needs in wireless communication and sensing technologies.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-21394 (URN)978-1-926872-16-2 (ISBN)
Conference
30th International Symposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction (ISARC 2013), August 11 to 15, 2013, Montréal, Canada
Projects
ITS-EASY Post Graduate School for Embedded Software and Systems
Available from: 2013-09-16 Created: 2013-09-11 Last updated: 2014-11-20Bibliographically approved
3. Evaluation of Wireless Short-Range Communication Performance in a Quarry Environment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of Wireless Short-Range Communication Performance in a Quarry Environment
2013 (English)In: 2013 International Conference on Connected Vehicles and Expo (ICCVE), 2013, 308-313 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Computer Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-26311 (URN)10.1109/ICCVE.2013.6799812 (DOI)
Conference
The 2nd International Conference on Connected Vehicles & Expo (ICCVE), Las Vegas, Dec 2-6, 2013
Projects
ITS-EASY
Available from: 2014-10-29 Created: 2014-10-29 Last updated: 2014-11-20Bibliographically approved
4. Energy savings by wireless control of speed, scheduling and travel times for hauling operation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy savings by wireless control of speed, scheduling and travel times for hauling operation
2014 (English)In: IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, Proceedings, 2014, 1115-1120 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A Quarry and Aggregate production site consist of sequential production processes and activities to process and produce the output products. Compared to a fixed manufacturing plant, the quarry processes involve mobile machines such as wheel loaders, trucks and articulated haulers and a highly dynamic road infrastructure. Today, the mobile machines are generally not synchronized or controlled towards the overall throughput of the site in real time. This indicates a general improvement potential in increased productivity at quarry sites, but also unsolved challenges for the same reason. Assuming a wireless control system that controls speed and throughput of the different processes and activities, there would be a fuel reduction potential in controlling the mobile machines. This optimization requires models of machine fuel consumption for different applications, velocities and travel times. The main contribution of this paper is the presentation of fuel measurements based on different speeds, site application characteristics and travel times for hauling operation. The fuel measures reveal important aspects regarding how different velocities impact fuel consumption. The results of fuel measurements show a potential in fuel savings of up to 42% and a typical improvement of 20-30% depending on machine speeds, travel times, application and site characteristics. Based on this, some of the applications and challenges in wirelessly controlling machines are discussed.

Series
IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, Proceedings
Keyword
Advanced Driver Assist Systems, Fuel Measurements, Hauling optimization, Vehicle Control
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-25797 (URN)10.1109/IVS.2014.6856451 (DOI)2-s2.0-84905382501 (Scopus ID)9781479936380 (ISBN)
Conference
25th IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, IV 2014, 8 June 2014 through 11 June 2014, Dearborn, MI, USA
Available from: 2014-08-20 Created: 2014-08-20 Last updated: 2016-09-27Bibliographically approved

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