Bird Species in Urban and Agricultural Landscapes: Bird diversity patterns along an urbanisation gradient and crop damage caused by birds on the Deccan Plateau, India
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
The major human activities that have transformed the Earth include agriculture and urbanization. The present study was conducted to contribute to a description of the effect on birds of urbanization and agriculture in an Indian region. Terrestrial bird assemblages were censused along a five-stage urbanisation gradient between January and April 2010-2013 near the city of Amravati, on the Deccan Plateau, Central India. Altogether, 89 species of birds were recorded, with the highest species richness in the rural areas (67 species) and lowest in the urban stage (29 species). The assemblages were significantly nested in all the five stages. Maximum cumulative species abundance (12 399 individuals over four years) was found in the urban stage, and was due to the constant presence of large groups of Rose-ringed Parakeets (Psittacula krameri). The lowest bird abundance was found in the industrial zone (4837 in total), where there was also a nearly two-fold decrease from 2010 to 2013. Thirty-six species demonstrated significant variation in their densities at least in one stage and between at least two months (p<0.05). Densities of 13.9% (n=5) of those species varied significantly in two stages, that of Copsychus saularis in three stages, and of Phoenicurus ochruros, in all five stages. Urban, suburban, periurban and forest stages were characterised by relatively stable species densities (significant changes observed only for 17.2% (n=5), 17.1% (n=6), 12.9% (n=7), and 17.8% (n=16) species, respectively). The additive diversity partitioning indicated that of the overall diversity (gamma-diversity), alpha diversity (within transects located within one stage) contributed 50.1% to the total diversity, and the controbution of within-stage variability was small (2.7%). Additionally, censuses on cultivated fields were taken. In two areas under mixed cropping systems, 53 bird species were identified in the two years period between June and December, 2011 and 2012. Out of the 53 detected species, only 14 were common (recorded at ≥50% of visits). Twenty-one species were recorded at Zadgaon in crops of tur (Cajanus cajan), cotton (Gossypium arboreum) and soybean (Glycine max). Nineteen species were recorded at Bhankhed in jawar (Sorghum bicolor), cotton and mung bean (Phaseolus aureus). At Zadgaon, territorial activity was observed in four species: the House Sparrow (Passer domesticus), Jungle Babbler (Turdoides striata), Yellow-eyed Babbler (Chrysomma sinense) and Red-wattled Lapwing (Vanellus indicus). The study indicated that four bird species were found under high risk, thirteen species at medium risk and eight species at low risk due to pesticide applications in croplands. The extent of crop damage in fields of groundnut, pearl millet, peas, sorghum, and sunflower was assessed by doing actual field censuses. The sustainable solution for reducing crop damage is a need for the farmers and such techniques will help to avoid direct or indirect effects of use of lethal bird control techniques on bird species diversity.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. , x, 31, xiv p.
TRITA-LWR. PHD, ISSN 1650-8602 ; 2014:08
Bird assemblage structure, Forest-urban gradient, Scale-sensitive diversity, Crop depredation, Crop damage assessment, Deccan Plateau, India.
Research subject Land and Water Resources Engineering
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-154421ISBN: 978-91-7595-321-2OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-154421DiVA: diva2:756899
2014-11-14, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, Stockholm, 14:00 (English)
Kjellander, Peter, Professor
Bhattacharya, Prosun, ProfessorLövei, Gabor L., Adjunct Professor
QC 201410222014-10-222014-10-202014-10-22Bibliographically approved
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