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Real Time Decoding of Color Symbol for Optical Positioning System
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad, Pakistan.
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. (STC)
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. (STC)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5615-7347
Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway .
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2015 (English)In: International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems, ISSN 1729-8806, E-ISSN 1729-8814, Vol. 12, no 5Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the design and real-time decoding of a color symbol that can be used as a reference marker for optical navigation. The designed symbol has a circular shape and is printed on paper using two distinct colors. This pair of colors is selected based on the highest achievable signal to noise ratio. The symbol is designed to carry eight bit information. Real time decoding of this symbol is performed using a heterogeneous combination of Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and a microcontroller.  An image sensor having a resolution of 1600 by 1200 pixels is used to capture images of symbols in complex backgrounds. Dynamic image segmentation, component labeling and feature extraction was performed on the FPGA. The region of interest was further computed from the extracted features. Feature data belonging to the symbol was sent from the FPGA to the microcontroller. Image processing tasks are partitioned between the FPGA and microcontroller based on data intensity. Experiments were performed to verify the rotational independence of the symbols. The maximum distance between camera and symbol allowing for correct detection and decoding was analyzed. Experiments were also performed to analyze the number of generated image components and sub-pixel precision versus different light sources and intensities. The proposed hardware architecture can process up to 55 frames per second for accurate detection and decoding of symbols at two Megapixels resolution. The power consumption of the complete system is 342mw.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 12, no 5
Keyword [en]
Indoor navigation, Reference symbol, Robotic vision
National Category
Robotics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-23168DOI: 10.5772/59680ISI: 000350647600001ScopusID: 2-s2.0-84923346270OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-23168DiVA: diva2:753601
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2014-10-08 Created: 2014-10-08 Last updated: 2016-10-31Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Real-Time Optical Position Sensing on FPGA
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Real-Time Optical Position Sensing on FPGA
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University, 2014. 95 p.
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 176
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-24035 (URN)978-91-87557-29-3 (ISBN)
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-01-08 Created: 2015-01-07 Last updated: 2015-01-08Bibliographically approved

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Malik, Abdul WaheedThörnberg, BennyAnwar, QaiserShahzad, Khurram
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