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Influence of a prudent diet on circulating cathepsin S in humans
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Biochemial structure and function.
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2014 (English)In: Nutrition Journal, ISSN 1475-2891, E-ISSN 1475-2891, Vol. 13, 84- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Increased circulating cathepsin S levels have been linked to increased risk of cardiometabolic diseases and cancer. However, whether cathepsin S is a modifiable risk factor is unclear. We aimed to investigate the effects of a prudent diet on plasma cathepsin S levels in healthy individuals. Findings: Explorative analyses of a randomized study were performed in 88 normal to slightly overweight and hyperlipidemic men and women (aged 25 to 65) that were randomly assigned to ad libitum prudent diet, i.e. healthy Nordic diet (ND) or a control group (habitual Western diet) for 6 weeks. Whereas all foods in the ND were provided, the control group was advised to consume their habitual diet throughout the study. The ND was in line with dietary recommendations, e. g. low in saturated fats, sugars and salt, but high in plant-based foods rich in fibre and unsaturated fats. The ND significantly decreased cathepsin S levels (from 20.1 (+/-4.0 SD) to 19.7 mu g/L (+/-4.3 SD)) compared with control group (from 18.2 (+/-2.9 SD) to 19.1 mu g/L (+/-3.8 SD)). This difference remained after adjusting for sex and change in insulin sensitivity (P = 0.03), and near significant after adjusting for baseline cathepsin S levels (P = 0.06), but not for change in weight or LDL-C. Changes in cathepsin S levels were directly correlated with change in LDL-C. Conclusions: Compared with a habitual control diet, a provided ad libitum healthy Nordic diet decreased cathepsin S levels in healthy individuals, possibly mediated by weight loss or lowered LDL-C. These differences between groups in cathepsin S were however not robust and therefore need further investigation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 13, 84- p.
Keyword [en]
Nordic prudent diet, Cathepsin S, Weight loss, Cardiometabolic risk factors
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-233023DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-13-84ISI: 000341112000001OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-233023DiVA: diva2:752929
Available from: 2014-10-06 Created: 2014-09-29 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Cathepsin S as a Biomarker of Low-grade Inflammation, Insulin Resistance, and Cardiometabolic Disease Risk
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cathepsin S as a Biomarker of Low-grade Inflammation, Insulin Resistance, and Cardiometabolic Disease Risk
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Cathepsin S is a protease important in major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigen presentation and also in degrading the extracellular matrix. Studies, most of them experimental, have shown that cathepsin S is involved in different pathological conditions such as obesity, inflammation, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and cancer.

The overall hypothesis of this report is that high levels of circulating cathepsin S, is a biomarker that reflects pathology induced by inflammation and obesity. The overall aim of this report was to investigate possible associations between circulating cathepsin S, inflammation, glucometabolic disturbance, and its associated diseases in the community. As cathepsin S appears to be a novel risk marker for several pathological conditions, we also wanted to examine the effect of dietary intervention on circulating cathepsin S concentrations.

This thesis is based on data from three community-based cohorts, the Uppsala longitudinal study of adult men (ULSAM), the prospective investigation of the vasculature in Uppsala seniors (PIVUS), and a post-hoc study from the randomized controlled NORDIET trial.

In the first study, we identified a cross-sectional positive association between serum cathepsin S and two markers of cytokine-mediated inflammation, CRP and IL-6. These associations were similar in non-obese individuals. In longitudinal analyses, higher cathepsin S at baseline was associated with higher CRP and IL-6 levels after six years of follow-up. In the second study, we identified a cross-sectional association between increased serum levels of cathepsin S and reduced insulin sensitivity. These associations were similar in non-obese individuals. No significant association was observed between cathepsin S and insulin secretion. In longitudinal analysis, higher cathepsin S levels were associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes during the six-year follow-up. In the third study, we found that higher serum levels of cathepsin S were associated with increased mortality risk. Moreover, in the ULSAM cohort, serum cathepsin S was independently associated with cause-specific mortality from cardiovascular disease and cancer. In the fourth study, we identified that adherence to an ad libitum healthy Nordic diet for 6 weeks slightly decreased the levels of plasma cathepsin S in normal or marginally overweight individuals, relative to the control group. Changes in circulating cathepsin S concentrations were correlated with changes in body weight, LDL-C, and total cholesterol.

Conclusion: This thesis shows that circulating cathepsin S is a biomarker that independently reflects inflammation, insulin resistance, the risk of developing diabetes, and mortality risk. Furthermore, a Nordic diet moderately reduced cathepsin S levels in normal-weight and overweight men and women. This effect may be partially mediated by diet-induced weight loss and possibly by reduced LDL-C concentrations.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2014. 48 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 1046
Keyword
epidemiology, cathepsin S, inflammation, insulin resistance, diabetes, mortality, cardiovascular mortality, cancer mortality, healthy Nordic diet.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-234027 (URN)978-91-554-9083-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-12-04, sal IV, Universitetshuset, Biskopsgatan 3, 751 05 Uppsala, 13:00 (Swedish)
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Supervisors
Available from: 2014-11-12 Created: 2014-10-13 Last updated: 2015-02-03

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