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Smart Cities and Climate Targets: Reducing cities' energy use with ICT and travel information
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7466-1448
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis examines use of ICT in helping to reduce energy use in cities, thereby contributing to sustainable development and achievement of cities’ climate targets. It explores how targets can be developed in a consistent and transparent way, how to identify the main ICT ‘hotspots’ as regards reducing citizens’ energy use and how they can be included in city planning. Implementation of mobility management principles and climate targets was tested in two existing solutions, a traveller information system and a flexible work hub solution.

Four key methodological considerations when setting climate targets for cities were identified. These concerned decisions on: target setting object, temporal scope, units and target range. A tool was developed for identifying promising ICT hotspots. The tool can also be used to monitor implementation of ICT solutions and the associated technological and socio-technical difficulties. In a case study in Greater Stockholm, the ICT hotspots identified were intelligent building heating systems, intelligent transport system and potential transformation of the physical environment (buildings and roads) enabled by ICT solutions.

Two aspects of planning identified as crucial for successful implementation of energy saving ICT solutions were studied in detail: i) Timing of ICT-related decisions in the planning process; and ii) the actor networks needed to implement the ICT solutions and their management. There are few decision points in the current planning process, so the municipality as property owner and its decision-making process are of crucial importance. Two collaborative approaches to govern, network governance and coordination through meta-governance as a way of indirect steering, are proposed.

An investigation of nine traveller information systems and a case study in Stockholm of flexible work hub solutions revealed that mobility management approaches to reduce transport demand and encourage environmentally friendly transport modes are poorly reflected in the implementation. To support mobility management approaches, traveller information systems should primarily offer, or be integrated with, other solutions that support the choices “no travel” and “shorter journey”. Flexible work hubs should be located in local nodes closer to people’s homes.

The main conclusions from this work were that ICT solutions can be modified to support achievement of cities’ climate targets and that climate targets must be defined using transparent methodology that clarifies the target content, ensuring that the most promising energy saving ICT solutions are implemented.

 

Abstract [sv]

Denna avhandling undersöker hur informations- och kommunikationsteknologi (IKT) kan användas till att bidra till minskning av energianvändning i städer och därmed bidra till att nå städers klimatmål. Den undersöker hur städers klimatmål kan utvecklas på ett konsekvent och transparent sätt, hur de mest lovande IKT-lösningarna kan identifieras när det gäller att minska invånarnas energianvändning och hur de kan ingå i stadsplanering. Genomförande av principer för mobility management samt samhälleliga mål testas i två befintliga lösningar, - ett resenärsinformationssystem och en flexibel arbetsplatslösning.

Fyra centrala metodologiska överväganden för att bestämma städers klimatmål identifieras. Dessa gäller: föremålet för målformuleringen, den tidsmässiga omfattningen, mätenheten och målets räckvidd. Ett verktyg togs fram för att identifiera de IKT- lösningarna som är mest lovande vad gäller att minska stadsbornas energianvändning. Verktyget kan också användas för att observera de identifierade IKT-lösningarnas utnyttjandegrad samt de tekniska och sociotekniska svårigheter som är förenade med införande. I en fallstudie i Storstockholmsområdet identifierades de IKT-lösningar som var mest lovande: intelligenta värmesystem för byggnader, intelligenta transportsystem samt den potentiella förändringen av den fysiska miljön (byggnader och vägar) som görs möjliggörs av IKT-lösningar.

Två aspekter av planering som identifierats som avgörande för ett framgångsrikt införande av energibesparande IKT-lösningar har studerats i detalj: i) Tidpunkten för IKT-relaterade beslut i planeringsprocessen; och ii) de aktörsnätverk som behövs för att införa och förvalta IKT-lösningarna. Det finns få beslutspunkter i den aktuella planeringen vilket gör att beslutsprocessen och kommunens roll som fastighetsägare är av avgörande betydelse. Två strategier för samarbete föreslås, styrning genom samordning i nätverk och samordning via metastyrning (indirekt styrning).

En undersökning av nio reseplanerare och en fallstudie i Stockholm av flexibla arbetsplatslösningar visade att mobility management metoder för att minska efterfrågan på transporter och uppmuntra miljövänliga transportsätt inte återspeglas tillräckligt i genomförandet. För att stödja mobility management-principer bör resenärsinformations-system främst erbjuda, eller integreras med andra lösningar som stödjer valen "ingen resa" och "kortare resa". Hubbar för flexibla arbetsplatser bör placeras i lokala noder närmare bostäder.

De viktigaste slutsatserna i denna avhandling är att IKT-lösningar kan modifieras för att stödja städers klimatmål och att klimatmål måste definieras med hjälp av transparenta metoder för att säkerställa att de mest lovande IKT-lösningar för energiminskning införs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. , 67 p.
Series
TRITA - FMS - PHD, 2014:01
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Research subject
Information and Communication Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-152821ISBN: 978-91-7595-265-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-152821DiVA: diva2:751909
Public defence
2014-10-24, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, KTH, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Vinnova
Note

QC 20141002

Available from: 2014-10-02 Created: 2014-10-02 Last updated: 2014-10-09Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Towards a comprehensive system of methodological considerations for cities' climate targets
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards a comprehensive system of methodological considerations for cities' climate targets
Show others...
2013 (English)In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 62, 1276-1287 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Climate targets for cities abound. However, what these targets really imply is dependent on a number of decisions regarding system boundaries and methods of calculation. In order to understand and compare cities' climate targets, there is a need for a generic and comprehensive framework of key methodological considerations. This paper identifies eight key methodological considerations for the different choices that can be made when setting targets for GHG emissions in a city and arranges them in four categories: temporal scope of target, object for target setting, unit of target, and range of target. To explore how target setting is carried out in practice, the climate targets of eight European cities were analysed. The results showed that these targets cover only a limited part of what could be included. Moreover, the cities showed quite limited awareness of what is, or could be, include in the targets. This makes comparison and benchmarking between cities difficult.

Keyword
Cities' climate targets, Methodological framework, Assessment of cities' targets
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-134229 (URN)10.1016/j.enpol.2013.06.093 (DOI)000326770300130 ()2-s2.0-84884978286 (Scopus ID)
Projects
TeleSy - Telecommunicators' work in the sustainable city
Funder
Vinnova
Note

QC 20131205

Available from: 2013-11-20 Created: 2013-11-20 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
2. Smart sustainable cities - Exploring ICT solutions for reduced energy use in cities
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Smart sustainable cities - Exploring ICT solutions for reduced energy use in cities
2014 (English)In: Environmental Modelling & Software, ISSN 1364-8152, E-ISSN 1873-6726, Vol. 56, 52-62 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article explores the opportunities of using ICT as an enabling technology to reduce energy use in cities. An analytical framework is developed in which a typology of ICT opportunities is combined with a typology of household functions, i.e. all the activities that require energy. The energy used for household functions is calculated using a consumption-based lifecycle perspective. The analytical framework is intended to be of use to researchers, city and regional authorities and ICT companies interested in acquiring a better understanding of how ICT investments could contribute to reduce energy use in cities.

Keyword
Smart cities, Energy use, ICT, Smart sustainable cities, Household
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Information and Communication Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-142907 (URN)10.1016/j.envsoft.2013.12.019 (DOI)000337555500006 ()2-s2.0-84901306975 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Vinnova
Note

QC 20140814

Available from: 2014-03-13 Created: 2014-03-13 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
3. Planning for smart sustainable cities: Decisions in the planning process and actor networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Planning for smart sustainable cities: Decisions in the planning process and actor networks
2014 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) have been ascribed an important role for decreasing energy use and mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in urban areas. Through automation, dematerialisation, persuasion and soft transformation ICT holds the potential of making urban life more sustainable, without cutting back in quality of life. To fully utilise the potential of ICT for sustainable cities there is a need to reconsider the design and technical specification of buildings and infrastructure systems, as well as what actors to involve in the planning and management of the city. A ubiquitous introduction of ICT for sustainability may also influence the spatial and institutional organisation of the city. In spite of this, there is little research on ICT for sustainable cities from the perspective of planning and governance. This paper aims to abate parts of this knowledge gap through exploring two aspects of planning that we see as crucial for a successful implementation of ICT for sustainable cities. The first of these aspects concerns when in the planning process decisions regarding ICT need to be taken. The second aspect deals with what actor networks are needed to implement the ICT solutions and how these can be managed, or meta-governed. These aspects are explored through literature studies, workshops and interviews with urban planners and other actors engaged in the Royal Seaport project in Stockholm, Sweden.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Atlantis Press, 2014
Series
ACSR, ISSN 2352-538x ; 2
Keyword
Smart sustainable cities, planning process, actors
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-148437 (URN)000346245500036 ()2-s2.0-84928034835 (Scopus ID)978-94-62520-22-6 (ISBN)
Conference
2nd International Conference on ICT for Sustainability (ICTS), Stockholm, SWEDEN, AUG 24-27, 2014
Note

QC 20150122

Available from: 2014-08-07 Created: 2014-08-07 Last updated: 2015-01-22Bibliographically approved
4. Designing next generation multimodal traveler information systems to support sustainability-oriented decisions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Designing next generation multimodal traveler information systems to support sustainability-oriented decisions
2014 (English)In: Environmental Modelling & Software, ISSN 1364-8152, E-ISSN 1873-6726, Vol. 56, 83-93 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article explores functionality that could be included in the next generation multimodal travel information system to support sustainability-oriented decisions. It identifies situations in the journey's three phases, pre-, on- and post-trip that have the potential to change travel patterns and also transport choices that the individual makes in order to perform activities in their daily life. Requirements on a traveler information system were derived from these situations and choices. The identified requirements are then transferred into functionalities in a travel information system that has potentials to encourage decisions that could lead to lower energy usage. Nine traveler information systems for multimodal and public transport travel are systematically investigated to find out if they include the proposed functionality. The investigated systems are in operation primarily in Sweden, Germany, the UK and one has global coverage. The investigation results in a discussion about future opportunities with proposal to encourage sustainability oriented travel decisions in the next generation travel information system.

Keyword
Energy reduction, Multimodal transport, Travel decisions, Travel patterns, Traveler information system
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
Information and Communication Technology; Planning and Decision Analysis
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-142914 (URN)10.1016/j.envsoft.2014.01.017 (DOI)000337555500009 ()2-s2.0-84901481001 (Scopus ID)
Projects
TRACS - Travel Planners for Sustainable Cities
Funder
Vinnova
Note

QC 20140805

Available from: 2014-03-13 Created: 2014-03-13 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
5. Work hubs: Location considerations and opportunities for reduced travel
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Work hubs: Location considerations and opportunities for reduced travel
2015 (English)In: PROCEEDINGS OF ENVIROINFO AND ICT FOR SUSTAINABILITY 2015, Atlantis Press , 2015, Vol. 22, 126-135 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Cities worldwide are suffering from congestion among public transport users and motorists. Mayors have set ambitious targets to reduce traffic and improve public transportation, while at the same time reducing energy use. This paper investigates the option of using flexible workplaces in local nodes within urban regions in order to transform transportation needs. The business characteristics of this type of flexible workplace and the driving forces and potential barriers in its establishment are examined in an interview study with existing hub owners. The results provide novel information on emerging technologies related to urban transportation solutions and highlight how ICT solutions can affect the accessibility and relevance of flexible workplaces and thereby support their energy reduction potential.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Atlantis Press, 2015
Series
ACSR-Advances in Comptuer Science Research, ISSN 2352-538X
Keyword
flexible workplace, co-working hub, ICT, energy reduction, transport reduction, transport needs, travel planners
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-153019 (URN)000365044700015 ()978-94-62520-92-9 (ISBN)
Conference
Joint Conference on 29th International Conference on Informatics for Environmental Protection / 3rd International Conference on ICT for Sustainability (EnviroInfo and ICT4S),Univ Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DENMARK, 2015
Note

QC 20151218

Available from: 2014-10-02 Created: 2014-10-02 Last updated: 2017-01-19Bibliographically approved

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CiteExportLink to record
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