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Linking exposure pathways to internal concentrations of brominated flame retardants in Swedish mothers and their toddlers
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have been used in a variety of consumer products to enhance their fire safety. This has resulted in exposure of the environment, wildlife and humans causing risks of endocrine disruption. The use restrictions of many BFRs have resulted in the introduction of other brominated chemicals (emerging BFRs) on the market. Humans are exposed to BFRs primarily via diet and dust ingestion, but the importance of the different exposure pathways has scarcely been studied. Children in particular have not been studied well due to lack of biomonitoring data.

In this thesis, a mother-toddler cohort (n=24) from Uppsala was studied for their exposure to tri-decabrominated diphenyl ethers (tri-decaBDEs), isomer-specific hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) and emerging BFRs (EBFRs). A clean-up and fractionation method was developed for determination of the above-mentioned BFRs in the same sample without dividing the sample. Measures of external exposure from dietary intake and dust ingestion were estimated. These were compared to internal concentrations (serum, feces) to determine which exposure pathways were most important for explaining the different BFR concentrations and patterns found in mothers and toddlers.

Taking all the results into account, the toddlers’ higher serum levels of tetra-pentaBDEs seem to be the result of previous breastfeeding and those of octa-decaBDEs from exposure to house dust. For mothers, diet was estimated to be the main exposure route of tri-hexaBDEs and HBCDs. Dust ingestion was estimated to be the main route for BDE-209 exposure in mothers.

Significant correlations were found between the tetra-decaBDE concentrations in matched serum and feces samples indicating that feces could be used as a non-invasive sample matrix for biomonitoring of PBDEs in toddlers. EBFRs were detected in the feces of toddlers and in a few serum samples from both mothers and toddlers indicating that exposure to these replacement chemicals occurs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University , 2014. , 35 p.
Keyword [en]
BFR, PBDE, HBCD, EBFR, human exposure, serum, feces, house dust, food
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-107592ISBN: 978-91-7649-000-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-107592DiVA: diva2:750956
Public defence
2014-11-07, De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, Stockholm, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

 At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Submitted. Paper 4: Manuscript.

Available from: 2014-10-16 Created: 2014-09-22 Last updated: 2014-11-18Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Clean-up method for determination of established and emerging brominated flame retardants in dust
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Clean-up method for determination of established and emerging brominated flame retardants in dust
2012 (English)In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 404, no 2, 459-466 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A clean-up method was developed to enable the determination of tri-decabrominated diphenyl ethers, isomer-specific hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), (2-ethylhexyl)tetrabromobenzoate (TBB), and bis(2-ethylhexyl)tetrabromophthalate (TBPH) in the same dust sample extract using reasonable amounts of solvents and without dividing the sample. After extraction, the sample was separated on a silica column into three fractions that were subsequently cleaned up individually. The polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and DBDPE were eluted in Fraction I, TBB, TBPH, and BTBPE in Fraction II, and HBCDs in Fraction III. Fractions I and II were analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and Fraction III using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The method gave good recoveries (60-120%), precise results using (13) C-labelled internal standards and was accurate when comparing results to certified values (PBDEs in NIST SRM 2585). The method was applied to dust samples from the Stockholm (Sweden) area. All the emerging brominated flame retardants (BFRs) studied, except BTBPE, were present in all the samples in quantifiable concentrations, often higher than the PBDEs. BTBPE was quantified in only one sample. It is evident that emerging BFRs are present in Swedish homes, and these compounds should be included in the BFR analyses of indoor environments.

Keyword
Emerging BFRs, PBDE, HBCD, Analytical method, Dust
National Category
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-80607 (URN)10.1007/s00216-012-6160-y (DOI)000306330000019 ()
Note

AuthorCount:3;

Available from: 2012-09-26 Created: 2012-09-25 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
2. Brominated Flame Retardants in Matched Serum Samples from Swedish First-Time Mothers and Their Toddlers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Brominated Flame Retardants in Matched Serum Samples from Swedish First-Time Mothers and Their Toddlers
Show others...
2014 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 48, no 13, 7584-7592 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Tri-decabrominated diphenyl ethers and 21 other flame retardants were determined in matched serum samples from 24 Swedish mothers (Uppsala county) and their toddlers (11-15 months of age). The median concentrations of individual polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) ranged from 0.036 to 0.95 ng/g lipid in mothers and from 0.057 to 1.5 ng/g lipid in toddlers. BDE-209 was detected in all but one sample. BDE-153 was the predominant congener in the mothers while in toddlers, BDE-209 was found in the highest concentrations. The levels of BDE-47, -100, -207, -208, and -209 in toddlers were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those in their mothers. Dechlorane Plus (anti- and syn-) and alpha- and beta-tetrabromoethylcyclohexane were detected in a few (2-4) serum samples from both mothers and toddlers. This study also reports concentrations of alpha-HBCD and eight emerging brominated flame retardants (EBFRs) in the standard reference material serum (SRM 1958, NIST). Lack of correlations between the matched serum samples indicate different exposure routes for octa-decaBDEs in mothers versus toddlers. Congener-to-congener correlations within the mother or toddler cohorts suggest diet as an important exposure pathway for tetra-nonaBDEs for mothers, breastfeeding as a predominant exposure pathway for tetra-hexaBDEs, and dust for octa-decaBDEs for toddlers.

National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-106581 (URN)10.1021/es501139d (DOI)000338488700049 ()
Note

AuthorCount:5;

Available from: 2014-08-14 Created: 2014-08-12 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
3. Feasibility study of feces for non-invasive biomonitoring of brominated flame retardants in toddlers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Feasibility study of feces for non-invasive biomonitoring of brominated flame retardants in toddlers
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(English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-107288 (URN)
Available from: 2014-09-22 Created: 2014-09-09 Last updated: 2017-12-05
4. Exposure to brominated flame retardants via diet and dust compared to internal concentrations in a Swedish mother-toddler cohort
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exposure to brominated flame retardants via diet and dust compared to internal concentrations in a Swedish mother-toddler cohort
Show others...
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-107591 (URN)
Available from: 2014-09-22 Created: 2014-09-22 Last updated: 2014-10-06

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