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Tankeform och problemmiljö: skolan som kontext för tänkande i elementär matematik
Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
1988 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Avhandlingen är en sammanfattning av två empiriska studier som analyserar karaktären av kognitiva aktiviteter vid de betingelser för kommunikation som är utmärkande för pedagogiska miljöer. Elever i årskurs 6 har under vanliga matematiklektioner fått lösa vissa räkneuppgifter under olika situationella krav. I det ena experimentet ingår en enkel divisionsuppgift i ur skolsynpunkt oväntade sammanhang. I det andra omges en viss uppgift av i olika omfattning 'stöttande', analoga uppgifter. Resultaten visar att den  mikrokommunikativa problemmiljön har ett avgörande inflytande på hur problem definieras och löses. De svårigheter att framgångsrikt hantera de förelagda uppgifterna som har observerats, tycks i stor utsträckning ha att göra med fastställandet av problemets innebörd snarare än med dess lösning i snäv, algoritmisk bemärkelse. I analysen hävdas att teoretisk och praktisk förståelse av de svårigheter elever har vid elementär problemlösning, måste grundas på insikter rörande de skillnader i att bygga upp och strukturera inlärningsuppgifter som är typiska för skolan som kommunikativ miljö å ena sidan, och de som är naturliga i andra kontexter å den andra.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 1988. , 51 p.
Series
SIC (Linköping), ISSN 0280-5634 ; 26
Series
Rapport / Universitetet i Linköping, Institutionen för pedagogik och psykologi, ISSN 0282-4957 ; 126
Keyword [sv]
Matematikundervisning, Inlärning. Elever, Problemlösning, Matematik, Mellanstadiet
National Category
Educational Sciences Pedagogy
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-110831Local ID: LiU-Tema K-RB-88-26ISBN: 91-7870-406-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-110831DiVA: diva2:749282
Supervisors
Note

S. 1-22: sammanfattning, s. 23-51: 2 uppsatser

Available from: 2014-09-23 Created: 2014-09-23 Last updated: 2014-09-23Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. The Forrnal Setting as Contextfor Cognitive Activities: An Ernpirical Study of Arithmetic Operations under Conflicting Premisses for Comrnunication
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Forrnal Setting as Contextfor Cognitive Activities: An Ernpirical Study of Arithmetic Operations under Conflicting Premisses for Comrnunication
1987 (English)In: European Journal of Psychology of Education, ISSN 0256-2928, E-ISSN 1878-5174, Vol. 2, no 3, 233-245 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The general concern of the present article is to contribute to an understanding of the contextual determination of cognitive activities. More specifically, the focus of the empirical research reported has been to study how pupils define and deal with cognitive tasks in situations that are recognised as pedagogical in character. Within the context of their everyday mathematics teaching, 206 twelve year old primary school pupils were given work sheets containing elementary arithmetic problems. The experimental treatment consisted of introducing (through headings and instructions) pedagogical definitions of problems that were in conflict with the nature of the problems themselves. The results indicate that the predefinitions of cognitive activities typical of educational contexts have a strong impact on the way problems are dealt with. Clear differences could be discerned between groups at different achievement levels in the extent to which the cues present in pedagogical contexts were used in defining the problem. A crucial aspect of what are conventionally conceived as differences in mathematical ability seems, judging from the present results, to have more to do with the capacity to decipher ambiguous communicative situations than with the mastery of a mathematical algorithm per se.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Netherlands, 1987
Keyword
Learning; Learning of arithmetic; Cognitive activity; Learning in school; Contextual effects on learning
National Category
Educational Sciences Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-110832 (URN)10.1007/BF03172730 (DOI)
Available from: 2014-09-23 Created: 2014-09-23 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
2. Cognitive Operations and Educational Framing of Tasks: School as a Context for Arithmetic Thought
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cognitive Operations and Educational Framing of Tasks: School as a Context for Arithmetic Thought
1988 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 32, no 2, 61-71 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cognitive Operations and Educational Framing of Tasks. School as a Context for Arithmetic Thought. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research 32, 61‐71. The purpose of the present study is to contribute to the understanding of the contextual determination of cognitive activities. In a naturalistic experiment in a primary school setting it is shown how performance at group level on an elementary arithmetic task is influenced by the immediate context in which this problem is presented. Differences in performance between groups at various achievement levels in mathematics are amplified by corresponding differences in discovering and utilizing analogies between problems as heuristic aids. This latter kind of difference reflects – it is argued – variations in abilities in analysing and deciphering cognitive tasks at a linguistic and meta‐communicative level rather than in mastering the specific algorithmic tools. It is also argued that the functional meaning of the task as pedagogical praxis may differ between contexts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 1988
Keyword
Learning; Learning of arithmetic; Cognitive activity; Learning in school; Contextual effects on learning
National Category
Educational Sciences Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-110834 (URN)10.1080/0031383880320202 (DOI)
Available from: 2014-09-23 Created: 2014-09-23 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved

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Tankeform och problemmiljö: skolan som kontext för tänkande i elementär matematik(4126 kB)214 downloads
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