Change search
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Occurrence of additional WFD priority substances in Sweden
Executive, Företag, Sweco, Sweco environment AB.
Executive, Företag, Sweco, Sweco environment AB.
Executive, Företag, Sweco, Sweco environment AB.
Responsible organisation
2014 (English)Report (Other academic)Alternative title
Uppskattning av exponering för ozon Slutrapport från pilotstudie (Swedish)
Abstract [sv]

Nationell förekomst av de 15 föreslaget tillkommande prioriterade ämnena (COM(2011)876)

utvärderades. Undersökningen omfattade provtagning vid 73 inlandsytvatten, 10 kustnära ytvatten samt 17 provtagningspunkter för biota. Mestadels provtogs platser nedströms avloppsreningsverk, dels med direkt provtagning av vatten och dels med passiva provtagare. För 5 av de 15 ämnena kunde analysmetoderna ej uppfylla LOQ<EQS.

De ämnen som oftast förekom över sin bestämningsgräns i ytvatten var diklofenak, terbutryn och 17beta-estradiol ekvivalenter mätt med CALUX. För fisk indikerade resultaten förekomst av punktkällor för HBCD och PFOS. De ämnen som oftast förekom över sitt AA-MKN värde i inlandsvatten var diklorvos (ca 10 % av mätningarna) och Cybutrun/Irgarol (ca 5%). Vidare förekom 17-beta-estradiol ekvivalenter (CALUX), 17-alfa-ethinylestradiol samt diklofenak över det tidigare föreslagna AA-MKN i 10 %, 8 % respektive 3 % av mätningarna i inlandsvatten. Sammantaget överskreds AA-MKN för något ämne i ca 10 % av alla provpunkter i inlandsvatten. För biota överskreds MKN-värdet vid 20 % av provtagningspunkterna.

De huvudsakliga rekommendationerna är:

Heptaklor och heptaklorepoxid behöver möjligen mätas i fiskprov med bättre analysmetoder för att säkerhetsställa att dessa ämnens förekomst inte påverkar kemisk ytvattenstatus i Sverige.

Bättre analytismetoder behöver utvecklas för 17alfa-ethinylestradiol, 17beta-estradiol, cypermetrin och diklorvos.

En uppföljningsstudie bör omfatta färre provtagningspunkter och högre upplösning över tid för 8 utvalda ämnen. En separat uppföljningsstudie bör också via mätningar och/eller litteraturstudier fastställa de viktigaste källorna till dessa ämnen samt ge rekommendationer för uppströmsarbete.

Abstract [en]

Background and Methods

In 2012, a proposal was published with 15 additional priority substances to be amended to

the water framework directive (COM(2011)876). In directive 2013/39/EU a list of

priority substances to be amended to the water framework directive was published.

Diclofenac, 17-alpha-ethinylestradiol and 17-beta-estradiol were not included in this list

but were instead added to a watch list. Within the screening program of 2012 SWECO

Environment has had the assignment from the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency

to measure the occurrence of these 15 substances in surface waters of Sweden to

investigate if these are of national or regional interest.

Given the scope of the study, and in order to facilitate data evaluation, two clearly stated

objectives were decided upon:

•To assess the geographical variability of additional WFD priority substances in

Sweden on a large scale

•To assess to what degree the additional priority substances will affect the chemical

status of surface waters in Sweden.

The screening involved water sampling (direct water samples and passive samplers -

POCIS and SPMD) at 73 inland (limnic) and 11 coastal locations, and 17 samples of

biota. Sampling was done on two occasions in 2012 and 2013. The sampling stations

were mostly situated downstream waste water treatment plants (WWTPs). Sampling

followed a predetermined sampling plan which included quality assurance procedures.

All substances were extracted and analysed for the 15 substances using pre-determined

analytical protocols. Quality assurance procedures (e.g. EN ISO/IEC) were used for all

analytical work. Despite this, target LOQ was not achieved in all cases. The presence of

estrogenic substances in water was evaluated with a cell based test system (ER-CALUX).

Metals were used as reference substances.

Results and conclusions

In the case of substances that were often above LOQ (diklofenac, terbutryne and 17betaestradiol

equivalents using CALUX) there were no clear geographical patterns on a

national level. When comparing results upstream and downstream of WWTPs, it was

obvious that outgoing waste water was a major source of several substances to surface

water systems. The clearest exception was dichlorvos. The results also indicated that

metal concentrations were not in general correlated to the occurrence of the investigated

organic substances.

The substances that most often occurred above AA-EQS were dichlorvos (ca. 10% of the

samples) and cubytrune (ca. 5%). Furthermore, 17-beta-estradiol equivalents, 17-alfaethinylestradiole

and diclofenac occurred above the earlier suggested AA-EQS

(COM(2011)876) in 10%, 8% and 3% of the inland water samples respectively.

In total, AA-EQS was exceeded in approximately 10% of the sampling points of the

inland water systems. If 17-beta-estradiol equivalents, 17-alfa-ethinylestradiole and

diklofenac were included this number would increase to approximately 20%. In coastal

waters, AA-EQS was exceeded in approximately 40% of the sampling points if 17-betaestradiol

equivalents, 17-alfa-ethinylestradiole and diklofenac were included, although it

should be noted that only 11 coastal sampling points were included in the study. The AAEQS

was exceeded in approximately 20% of the fish samples.

It was also evident that the variability between sampling points was much greater than the

variability between 2012 and 2013. This would tentatively indicate a low temporal

variability in surface waters of these substances.


•Heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide need to be measured in a limited number of

fish samples, with a more sensitive analytical method

•Better analytical techniques needs to be developed for 17-alfa-ethinylestradiol,

17-beta-estradiol, cypermethrin and dichlorvos

•A follow up study should include fewer sampling stations, measurements with a

higher temporal resolution for water sampling (at least monthly) and possibly

the following substances:

-dichlorvos (all waters)

-cybutryne (all waters)

-17-beta-estradiol equivalents measured with ER-CALUX (all waters)

-17-alfa-ethinylestradiol and 17beta-estradiol (all waters)

-cypermethrin (coastal waters, could include development of analytical


-diclofenac (all waters)

-PFOS (all waters) (could be replaced with a compilation of literature


-HBCDs (in fish with high fat content, e.g. eel)

•A separate study could also focus on the sources of the substances that are

identified as important.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. , 115 p.
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Finance, National; Environmental Objectives, A Non-Toxic Environment; Environmental Objectives, Flourishing Lakes and Streams; Environmental Objectives, A Balanced Marine Environ­ment, Flourishing Coastal Areas and Archipelagos; Miljöövervakningens programområden, Toxic; Toxic, Screening
URN: urn:nbn:se:naturvardsverket:diva-1756OAI: diva2:746224
Available from: 2014-09-12 Created: 2014-09-12 Last updated: 2014-09-24Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(4765 kB)112 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 4765 kBChecksum SHA-512
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

By organisation
Sweco environment AB
Environmental Sciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 112 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Total: 112 hits
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link