Change search
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
The use of Model Predictive Control and Distributed Battery Energy Storage Systems for Primary Frequency Control
Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Information Technology, Mathematics and Electrical Engineering, Department of Engineering Cybernetics.
2014 (English)MasteroppgaveStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

Astheworldsenergydemandrisestogetherwithaglobalawarenessoverclimate-changes due to burning of fossil fuel, and disasters due to accidents at nuclear power plants, the demand for renewable energy grows. The two most available sources for renewable energy are solar power and wind power. However, these energy sources are unreliable since they only produce power under certain weather conditions. Among other things, fluctuations in the grid frequency of 50Hz increases. Primary Frequency Control is part of the toolbox for frequency control. In order to deliver primary frequency control, a plant with a rectifier, an inverter, and a battery package is needed. Eltek is a power elec- tronics company which delivers backup power solutions for sites with communication antennas or other communication equipment. This thesis will try to develop a con- trol strategy which controls a number of sites used both for backup power and primary frequencycontrol. Thiscontrollerneedstofollowtheregulationsgivenbythetransmis- sion system operator. The transmission system operator operates the power grid and is responsible for primary frequency control. However, private companies may also par- ticipate. This is done by auctions where several stakeholders make a bid for how much power can be delivered for a certain price. The winner of the bidding is allowed to de- liver primary frequency control services for a certain time period. In this thesis, the controller chosen is a model predictive controller. This is an op- timizing control strategy, and the controller should distribute power limits to each site. These limits may be different for up-regulation of the frequency and down-regulation of the frequency, and they should be distributed in such a way that it minimizes the battery degradation. The models for battery degradation are too complex to be imple- mented in a model predictive controller, hence a simpler model is implemented which focuses on one part of battery degradation. The controller developed is simulated in a plant modelled in SIMULINK, which consists of 20 sites with different battery sizes. Eachsiteismodelledafterasitecontrollersuggestedbythedanishtransmissionsystem operator Battery degradation models are also implemented at each site. One for lead-acid batteries and one for lithium-ion batteries. Half the sites uses lead- acid degradation model, and the rest uses the lithium-ion degradation model. These models are based on part physics part heuristics

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institutt for teknisk kybernetikk , 2014. , 110 p.
URN: urn:nbn:no:ntnu:diva-26232Local ID: ntnudaim:10722OAI: diva2:746081
Available from: 2014-09-11 Created: 2014-09-11 Last updated: 2014-09-11Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(1455 kB)822 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 1455 kBChecksum SHA-512
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf
cover(184 kB)3 downloads
File information
File name COVER01.pdfFile size 184 kBChecksum SHA-512
Type coverMimetype application/pdf
attachment(1017 kB)45 downloads
File information
File name ATTACHMENT01.zipFile size 1017 kBChecksum SHA-512
Type attachmentMimetype application/zip

By organisation
Department of Engineering Cybernetics

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 822 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Total: 660 hits
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link