The use of Model Predictive Control and Distributed Battery Energy Storage Systems for Primary Frequency Control
due to burning of fossil fuel, and disasters due to accidents at nuclear power plants, the
demand for renewable energy grows. The two most available sources for renewable
energy are solar power and wind power. However, these energy sources are unreliable
since they only produce power under certain weather conditions. Among other things,
fluctuations in the grid frequency of 50Hz increases. Primary Frequency Control is part
of the toolbox for frequency control. In order to deliver primary frequency control, a
plant with a rectifier, an inverter, and a battery package is needed. Eltek is a power elec-
tronics company which delivers backup power solutions for sites with communication
antennas or other communication equipment. This thesis will try to develop a con-
trol strategy which controls a number of sites used both for backup power and primary
sion system operator. The transmission system operator operates the power grid and is
responsible for primary frequency control. However, private companies may also par-
ticipate. This is done by auctions where several stakeholders make a bid for how much
power can be delivered for a certain price. The winner of the bidding is allowed to de-
liver primary frequency control services for a certain time period.
In this thesis, the controller chosen is a model predictive controller. This is an op-
timizing control strategy, and the controller should distribute power limits to each site.
These limits may be different for up-regulation of the frequency and down-regulation
of the frequency, and they should be distributed in such a way that it minimizes the
battery degradation. The models for battery degradation are too complex to be imple-
mented in a model predictive controller, hence a simpler model is implemented which
focuses on one part of battery degradation. The controller developed is simulated in
a plant modelled in SIMULINK, which consists of 20 sites with different battery sizes.
operator Energinet.dk. Battery degradation models are also implemented at each site.
One for lead-acid batteries and one for lithium-ion batteries. Half the sites uses lead-
acid degradation model, and the rest uses the lithium-ion degradation model. These
models are based on part physics part heuristics
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institutt for teknisk kybernetikk , 2014. , 110 p.
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:no:ntnu:diva-26232Local ID: ntnudaim:10722OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ntnu-26232DiVA: diva2:746081
Imsland, Lars, Professor