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Whole-body kinematics during paddling on kayak ergometer in elite able-bodied athletes: a first step to develop a classification for para-kayak athletes
Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
2014 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

Aim

The purpose of the study was to define three dimensional range of motion for all major joints (wrist, elbow, shoulder, trunk, pelvis, hip, knee, and ankle) in a group of able-bodied elite canoeists during paddling on a kayak ergometer. An additional purpose was to analyze if the range of motion changed with increased intensity and if there were any differences between body sides during paddling on the ergometer.

Method

Ten elite athletes (four women and six men) volunteered for the study (22 ± 3.5 years, 78.3 ± 10.2 kg, 1.79 ± 0.06 m). Three-dimensional kinematic data was recorded using an optoelectronic system and twelve cameras were placed in a circle around the ergometer. Fifty-four reflective markers were attached on the subject and 14 body segments were defined in the model used in the analysis to evaluate range of motion for each joint. Kinematic and force data were collected during paddling on the kayak ergometer at incremental intensities starting at 50 W ("Low") and increased with 50 W until the athlete was not able to hold the predetermined level ("Submaximal"). The participants were asked to maintain each intensity level as stable as possible during at least 20 kayak cycles, i.e. approximately 60 sec during the lowest intensity level. Finally, a maximal test was performed ("Maximal"). Mean values of 10 stroke cycles were used in the statistics.

Result

The mean range of motion was for shoulder flexion; 3 – 101°, shoulder abduction; 9–53°, shoulder inward/outward rotation; 39–51°, elbow flexion; 13–118°, wrist palmar/dorsiflexion; 9–31°, wrist radial/ulnar deviation; 9–22°, trunk flex/extension; 8 –1°, trunk rotation left/right; 24–24, trunk lateral bending right/left; 7 – 8°, hip flexion 85-116°, knee flexion; 7–56° and foot flexion 64–91°. When intensity increased the range of motion significantly increased in peak joint angle for shoulder flexion, shoulder inward rotation, trunk- , hip-, knee- and foot flexion. In general, there were no significant differences observed between left and right side for maximal and minimal range of motion.

Conclusion

The results from this kinematic study can be used as adequate reference values in the development for an evidence-based classification system for para-canoeists.

Abstract [sv]

Syfte

Syftet med studien var att undersöka tredimensionell rörelse för samtliga större leder i kroppen (axel, armbåge, handled, bål, bäcken, höft, knä och fotled) i en grupp elitkanotister under paddling på en ergometer. Syftet var också att undersöka om det högsta vinkelvärdet i vardera rörelseriktningen förändrades med ökad intensitet samt om det fanns någon asymmetri mellan kroppshalvorna i rörelseutslag under paddling på ergometern.

Metod

Tio svenska elitkanotister (fyra kvinnor och sex män) deltog frivilligt i denna studie (22 ± 3.5 år, 78.3 ± 10.2 kg, 1.79 ± 0.06 m). Tredimensionell rörelsekinematik registrerades med hjälp av ett optoelektroniskt system och tolv kameror placerades i en cirkel runt kajakergometern. Femtiofyra reflexiva markörer placerades på kroppen och 14 kroppssegment definierades i modellen och användes i analysen för att utvärdera rörelseomfånget i respektive led. Kinematik och kraftdata samlades in under paddling på ergometern vid olika intensitetsnivåer med start på 50 W ("Låg") och ökade med 50 W till dess att idrottaren inte kunde hålla den förutbestämda nivån ("Sub-maximal"). Varje forskningsperson uppmanades att bibehålla varje intensitetsnivå så precist som möjligt under minst 20 paddlingscykler, vilket var cirka 60  sekunder på den lägsta intensitetsnivån. Därefter genomfördes ett maximalt test (Maximal). Medelvärdet av 10 paddelcykler användes i statistiken.

Resultat

Medelvärdet för rörelseomfånget var för skulderflexion; 3 – 101°, skulderabduktion; 9–53°, skulderinåtrotation/utåtrotation; 39–51°, armbågsflexion; 13–118°, palmar/dorsalflexion i handleden; 9–31°, radial/ulnar deviation i handleden; 9–22°, bålflexion/extension; 8 –1°, bålrotation vänster/höger; 24–24,  bålböjning höger/vänster; 7 – 8°, höftflexion 85-116°, knäflexion; 7–56° och plantar/dorsalflexion i foten 64–91°. När intensiteten ökade, ökade rörelseutslaget signifikant i skulderflexion, skulderinåtrotation, bål-, höft-, knä- och fotflektion. Generellt fanns det ingen signifikant skillnad mellan sidorna vad gäller rörelseutslag.

Slutsats

Resultaten från denna studie kan användas som adekvata referensvärden i utvecklandet av den evidensbaserade klassificeringen av para-kanotister.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014.
Series
Examensarbete, 2013:156
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-3432OAI: oai:DiVA.org:gih-3432DiVA: diva2:745961
Educational program
Master programme
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2014-09-11 Created: 2014-09-11 Last updated: 2014-09-11Bibliographically approved

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