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Increasing the value of household appliances by adding a heat pump system
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences. (VIPP forskarskola)
2014 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Historically, domestic tasks such as preparing food and washing and drying clothes and dishes were done by hand. In a modern home many of these chores are taken care of by machines such as washing machines, dishwashers and tumble dryers. When the first such machines came on the market customers were happy that they worked at all! Today, the costs of electricity and customers’ environmental awareness are high, so features such as low electricity, water and detergent use strongly influence which household machine the customer will buy. One way to achieve lower electricity usage for the tumble dryer and the dishwasher is to add a heat pump system.

The function of a heat pump system is to extract heat from a lower temperature source (heat source) and reject it to a higher temperature sink (heat sink) at a higher temperature level. Heat pump systems have been used for a long time in refrigerators and freezers, and that industry has driven the development of small, high quality, low price heat pump components. The low price of good quality heat pump components, along with an increased willingness to pay extra for lower electricity usage and environmental impact, make it possible to introduce heat pump systems in other household products.

However, there is a high risk of failure with new features. A number of household manufacturers no longer exist because they introduced poorly implemented new features, which resulted in low quality and product performance. A manufacturer must predict whether the future value of a feature is high enough for the customer chain to pay for it. The challenge for the manufacturer is to develop and produce a high-performance heat pump feature in a household product with high quality, predict future willingness to pay for it, and launch it at the right moment in order to succeed.

Tumble dryers with heat pump systems have been on the market since 2000. Paper I reports on the development of a transient simulation model of a commercial heat pump tumble dryer. The measured and simulated results were compared with good similarity. The influence of the size of the compressor and the condenser was investigated using the validated simulation model. The results from the simulation model show that increasing the cylinder volume of the compressor by 50% decreases the drying time by 14% without using more electricity. 

Paper II is a concept study of adding a heat pump system to a dishwasher in order to decrease the total electricity usage. The dishwasher, dishware and water are heated by the condenser, and the evaporator absorbs the heat from a water tank. The majority of the heat transfer to the evaporator occurs when ice is generated in the water tank. An experimental setup and a transient simulation model of a heat pump dishwasher were developed. The simulation results show a 24% reduction in electricity use compared to a conventional dishwasher heated with an electric element. The simulation model was based on an experimental setup that was not optimised. During the study it became apparent that it is possible to decrease electricity usage even more with the next experimental setup.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2014. , p. 44
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2014:46
Keyword [en]
Heat pump, Appliances, ASKO, Energy system
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-33596ISBN: 978-91-7063-582-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-33596DiVA: diva2:744927
Presentation
2014-11-04, 9C203, Karlstads universitet, Karlstad, 10:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-10-30 Created: 2014-09-09 Last updated: 2017-10-26Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Performance Study of a Closed-Type Heat Pump Tumble Dryer Using A Simulation Model and an Experimental Set-Up
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance Study of a Closed-Type Heat Pump Tumble Dryer Using A Simulation Model and an Experimental Set-Up
2014 (English)In: Drying Technology, ISSN 0737-3937, E-ISSN 1532-2300, Vol. 32, no 8, p. 891-901Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the interests of competitiveness, manufactures of tumble dryers are seeking to reduce both their electricity use and the drying time. This study examines how the cylinder volume of the compressor and the total heat transfer of the condenser influence the drying time and electricity use in a heat pump tumble dryer. A transient simulation model was developed and compared to an experimental set-up with good similarity. The simulations show that increasing the cylinder volume of the compressor by 50% decreases the drying time by 14% without using more electricity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2014
Keyword
Energy analysis; Heat and mass transfer; Heat pump drying; Mathematical modeling
National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Environmental and Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-33839 (URN)10.1080/07373937.2013.875035 (DOI)000337247400004 ()
Available from: 2014-09-26 Created: 2014-09-26 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
2. A household dishwasher heated by a heat pump system using an energy storage unit with water as the heat source
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A household dishwasher heated by a heat pump system using an energy storage unit with water as the heat source
2015 (English)In: International journal of refrigeration, ISSN 0140-7007, E-ISSN 1879-2081, Vol. 49, p. 19-27Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Electricity usage by a household dishwasher can be reduced by using a heat pump system to heat the dishwasher cabinet, dishware and washing water. The evaporator obtains the energy from an energy storage unit which consists of a container filled with water which freezes to ice. The majority of the heat transfer from the energy storage to the evaporator occurs when ice is created in the energy storage unit. A transient simulation model of a dishwasher with a heat pump system was developed and compared to an experimental setup with good agreement. A simulation study of the compressor cylinder volume and the compressor operating time was performed. The results showed a 24% reduction in total electricity use compared to a dishwasher cycle using a traditional electric element.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keyword
Appliances, Energy use, Heat transfer, Freezing, Transient simulation, Appareils domestiques, Utilisation d'énergie, Transfert de chaleur, Congélation, Simulation transitoire
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Environmental and Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-39072 (URN)10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2014.10.012 (DOI)000348012500004 ()
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2016-01-19 Created: 2016-01-19 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved

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