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REALFLOW: Reliable Real-Time Flooding-Based Routing Protocol for Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks
Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
Corp Res, ABB AB, Sweden.
Corp Res, ABB AB, Sweden.
Corp Res, ABB AB, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7159-7508
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2014 (English)In: International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, ISSN 1550-1329, E-ISSN 1550-1477, art. nbr: 936379- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Wireless technologies have been increasingly applied in industrial automation systems due to flexible installation, mobility, and cost reduction. Unlike traditional wireless sensor networks (WSNs), industrial wireless sensor networks (IWSNs), when expanding from wireless monitoring to wireless control, have more stringent requirements on reliability, real-time performance, and robustness in a number of industrial applications. Successive transmission failures or deadline misses in these applications may severely degrade the control quality and result in serious economic losses and safety problems. Therefore, when deploying IWSNs in harsh industrial environments, to achieve reliable and deterministic end-to-end transmissions is critically important. In this paper, we explain the primary challenges of designing appropriate routing protocols and present a reliable real-time flooding-based routing protocol for IWSNs (REALFLOW). Instead of traditional routing tables, related node lists are generated in a simple distributed manner, serving for packet forwarding. A controlled flooding mechanism is applied to improve both reliability and real-time performance. A seamless transition in the event of topology change can be achieved by REALFLOW. Performance evaluations via simulations verify that significant improvements of reliability, real-time performance, and network recovery time can be achieved by REALFLOW, compared with traditional routing protocols.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. art. nbr: 936379- p.
National Category
Computer Science Computer and Information Science
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-25850DOI: 10.1155/2014/936379ISI: 000339759200001ScopusID: 2-s2.0-84935035310OAI: diva2:741794
Available from: 2014-08-29 Created: 2014-08-29 Last updated: 2015-07-23Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. On Reliable and Deadline-Constrained Communication in Wireless Industrial Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On Reliable and Deadline-Constrained Communication in Wireless Industrial Networks
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Along with the quick development of wireless communication technologies, industrial automation networks are also in unceasing evolution. Industrial wireless sensor and actuator networks (IWSAN) have been increasingly adopted in industrial automation systems. Although there are a number of advantages of replacing cables with wireless links, such as cost reduction, enhanced scalability and flexibility, the stringent requirements on communication reliability and meeting firm deadlines from industrial mission-critical applications must still be fulfilled. Also, transmissions over wireless channels in industrial environments are prone to noise and interferences, resulting in frequent erroneous packet deliveries. Although industrial automation systems are usually designed to be tolerant of certain communication errors, successive transmission failures may still cause downtime of industrial applications, which might lead to significant economic losses or even serious accidents. This thesis addresses the problems mentioned above and aims to provide reliable and deadline-constrained communication via IWSANs for industrial automation systems. On the MAC layer, existing IWSAN standards utilize automatic repeat request (ARQ) to improve reliability at the cost of additional transmission latency. An alternative method is to use Forward Error Correction (FEC) schemes to provide reliable communication by recovering erroneous data and avoiding unnecessary retransmissions. On the MAC layer, Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) is usually applied in current IWSAN standards for collision-free and deterministic communication. An inappropriate scheduling scheme may introduce high transmission jitter and degrade the quality of control. On the network layer, routing protocols play an important role in both communication reliability and latency. Existing solutions are either hardly able to fulfill all stringent requirements from the mission-critical industrial applications, too complicated to be realized, or lack verification in reality. The contributions of this thesis consist of (i) the possibilities of using FEC schemes in IWSANs is explored under the requirements of existing standards on the MAC layer. A compatible and flexible FEC scheme on the MAC layer for IWSANs that does not violate the standard is proposed and evaluated by simulations. (ii) To guarantee an acceptable control quality, a TDMA scheduling scheme is presented aiming for low communication jitter, and it is compared to classic scheduling schemes. (iii) The advantages of exploiting flooding in IWSANs is discussed; a reliable controlled flooding-based routing protocol is proposed and compared to both traditional routing protocols and other flooding-based protocols. (iv) A complete IWSAN platform is built and the whole protocol stack is implemented. Measurements were conducted in a real industrial environment to verify the correctness of the proposed solution.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University, 2014
Mälardalen University Press Dissertations, ISSN 1651-4238 ; 167
National Category
Communication Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-26165 (URN)978-91-7485-171-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-12-08, Delta, Mälardalens högskola, Västerås, 13:15 (English)
Available from: 2014-10-23 Created: 2014-10-23 Last updated: 2014-11-14Bibliographically approved

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