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Tomographic views of the middle atmosphere from a satellite platform
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The middle atmosphere is a very important part of the Earth system. Until recently, we did not realize the importance of the structure of this vaporous shell and of the fundamental role it plays in both creating and sustaining life on the planet. Thanks to the development and improvement of new sounding methods and techniques, our knowledge of the composition of the atmosphere has become more detailed than ever before. We have also learned how to reveal complex interactions between different species and how they react to the incoming solar radiation.

The middle part of the Earth’s atmosphere serves as a host for the Polar Mesospheric Clouds. These clouds consist of a thin layer of water-ice particles, only exsisting during the summer months and only close to the poles. There are indications that the occurrence of Polar Mesospheric Clouds may be linked to climate change. It has been pointed out that the first sightings coincide with the industrial revolution. Satellite observations have shown that Polar Mesospheric Clouds have become brighter and possibly more widely distributed during the 20th century. The clouds might therefore be suited as indicators of the variability of the climate - a good reason for studying this night-shimmering phenomena. The clouds can also be used as a proxy for middle atmospheric dynamics. In order to fully utilize Polar Mesospheric Clouds as tracers for atmospheric variability and dynamics, we need to better understand their local properties.

The Optical Spectrograph and Infra-Red Imager System (OSIRIS) is one of two instruments installed on the Odin satellite. The optical spectrograph of this instrument observes sunlight scattered by the atmosphere and thus the Polar Mesospheric Clouds. This thesis deals with a tomographic technique that can reconstruct both horizontal and vertical structures of the clouds by using observations from various angles of the atmospheric region. From this information, microphysical properties such as particle sizes and number densities are obtained.

The tomographic technique presented in this thesis also provides a basis for a new satellite concept - MATS. The idea behind the MATS satellite mission is to analyze wave activity in the atmosphere over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, based on the scientific heritage from Odin/OSIRIS and the tomographic algorithms presented in this thesis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Meteorology, Stockholm University , 2014. , 53 p.
Keyword [en]
Atmosphere, Mesosphere, Noctilucent Clouds, Polar Mesospheric Clouds, Tomography, Remote sensing, Odin, OSIRIS
National Category
Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences
Research subject
Atmospheric Sciences and Oceanography
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-106833ISBN: 978-91-7447-974-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-106833DiVA: diva2:740265
Public defence
2014-10-03, De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper3: Submitted. Paper 4: Manuscript.

Available from: 2014-09-11 Created: 2014-08-23 Last updated: 2014-10-22Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. What caused the exceptional mid-latitudinal Noctilucent Cloud event in July 2009?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What caused the exceptional mid-latitudinal Noctilucent Cloud event in July 2009?
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2011 (English)In: Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, ISSN 1364-6826, E-ISSN 1879-1824, Vol. 73, no 14-15, 2125-2131 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Noctilucent Clouds (NLCs) are rarely observed at mid-latitudes. In July 2009, strong NLCs were recorded from both Paris and Nebraska, located at latitudes 48 degrees N and 41 degrees N, respectively. The main focus of this work is on the atmospheric conditions that have led to NLCs at these latitudes. We investigate to what extent these clouds may be explained by local formation or by transport from higher latitudes. The dynamical situation is analyzed in terms of wind fields created from Aura/MLS temperature data and measured by radar. We discuss possible tidal effects on the transport and examine the general planetary wave activity during these days. The winds do not seem sufficient to transport NLC particles long southward distances. Hence a local formation is rather likely. In order to investigate the possibility of local NLC formation, the CARMA microphysical model has been applied with temperature data from MLS as input. The results from the large-scale datasets are compared to NLC observations by Odin and to local NLC, temperature and wind measurements by lidar and radar. The reason for the exceptional NLC formation is most likely a combination of local temperature variations by diurnal tides, advantageously located large-scale planetary waves, and general mesospheric temperature conditions that were 5-10 K colder than in previous years. The results also point to that NLCs are very unlikely to occur at latitudes below 50 degrees N during daytime. This conclusion can be made from a tidal temperature mode with cold temperatures during nighttime and temperatures above the limit for NLC occurrence during daytime. The best time for observing mid-latitude NLCs is during the early morning hours.

Keyword
Mesosphere, Noctilucent Clouds, Atmospheric dynamics
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-67286 (URN)10.1016/j.jastp.2010.12.008 (DOI)000295551000010 ()
Note
authorCount :7Available from: 2011-12-30 Created: 2011-12-27 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
2. First simultaneous retrievals of horizontal and vertical structures of Polar Mesospheric Clouds from Odin/OSIRIS tomography
Open this publication in new window or tab >>First simultaneous retrievals of horizontal and vertical structures of Polar Mesospheric Clouds from Odin/OSIRIS tomography
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2013 (English)In: Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, ISSN 1364-6826, E-ISSN 1879-1824, Vol. 104, 213-223 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Limb-scanning satellites can provide global information about the vertical structure of Polar Mesospheric Clouds. However, information about horizontal structures usually remains limited. In eighteen days during the northern hemisphere summers of 2010 and 2011, the Odin satellite was operated in a special mesospheric mode with short limb scans limited to the altitude range of Polar Mesospheric Clouds. For Odin's Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imager System (OSIRIS) this provides multiple views through a given cloud volume, which forms a basis for tomographic analyses of the vertical/horizontal cloud structures. Here we present an algorithm for a tomographic analysis of mesospheric clouds based on maximum probability techniques. We also present the first simultaneously retrieved vertical and horizontal Polar Mesospheric Cloud structures. The findings show that the tomographic algorithm is able to locate detailed structures such as tilts, stratifications, or holes that cannot be analyzed by other limb, nadir, or ground-based measurements. We find a mean peak altitude of the clouds to be 83.6 km. We identify horizontal patches down to sizes of 300 km, which corresponds to a horizontal resolution that is limited by the available number of limb scans.

Keyword
Middle atmosphere, Noctilucent clouds, Polar Mesospheric Clouds, Tomography, Remote sensing
National Category
Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-98091 (URN)10.1016/j.jastp.2013.06.013 (DOI)000327232100020 ()
Note

AuthorCount:6;

Available from: 2013-12-27 Created: 2013-12-27 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
3. Tomographic and spectral views on the lifecycle of Polar Mesospheric Clouds from Odin/OSIRIS
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tomographic and spectral views on the lifecycle of Polar Mesospheric Clouds from Odin/OSIRIS
(English)In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, ISSN 2169-897X, E-ISSN 2169-8996Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
National Category
Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-106864 (URN)
Available from: 2014-08-25 Created: 2014-08-25 Last updated: 2017-12-05
4. Mesospheric Airglow/Aerosol Tomography and Spectroscopy (MATS) - a satellite mission on mesospheric waves
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mesospheric Airglow/Aerosol Tomography and Spectroscopy (MATS) - a satellite mission on mesospheric waves
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-106866 (URN)
Available from: 2014-08-25 Created: 2014-08-25 Last updated: 2014-10-22

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