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Effects of Time pressure and Test Priority on Verbal & Action Memory and Recall for Words Rehearsed via Maintenance & Elaborative Rehearsal
Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work, Örebro University, Sweden. (CHAMP)
2013 (Persian)In: Advances in Cognitive Science, Vol. 15, no 2, 20-31 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]


The process of recalling not only receives influence from the memory strength and learning, but also affected by the study and testing circumstances and the interaction of both .Thisresearch investigated the effects of time pressure and changes in tasks’sequence on free recall.


166 students were randomly selected using the multiple-stage sampling and were enrolled in our experiments. Four designed experiments were carried out to assessthe effects of time pressure to rehears the words on recall. Likewise, to examine the effects of test priority, first group learned each word via the elaborative rehearsal method, andthe maintenance rehearsalin the future task. The other group accomplished the same tasks followinga change in tasks’ sequence. Other experimentswere implemented using the same method for the verbal and action memory tasks.


Our results showed that access to the products of elaborative rehearsal is more compromised by time pressure than the maintenance rehearsal. Recalled words rehearsed via

maintenance were significantly more in number when implemented as first task. Meanwhile, the superiority of action memory over verbal memory in all experiments was noted.


Despite the fact that elaborative rehearsal is known to be a more efficacious learning strategy, since this method needs higher levels of mental and time resources, its efficacy is much decreased under time pressure. Novelty factor affects the maintenance rehearsal more than other methods as this strategy needs less data processing. Finally, the rich encoding in action memory which is resulted from a higher physical and sensory experience appears to improve the free recall.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Cognitive Science , 2013. Vol. 15, no 2, 20-31 p.
Keyword [en]
Free recall, Maintenance rehearsal, Elaborative rehearsal, Action memory, Verbal
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-35923OAI: diva2:737368
Available from: 2014-08-12 Created: 2014-08-12 Last updated: 2014-09-10Bibliographically approved

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Bidabad, Zare & Kormi-Nouri (2013)(3441 kB)198 downloads
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Kormi-Nouri, Reza
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School of Law, Psychology and Social Work, Örebro University, Sweden
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