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Kunskapssammanställning över introduktionen av elbilar
Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7828-3640
Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Crash safety.
2014 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)Alternative title
Overview of the introduction of electrical vehicles (English)
Abstract [sv]

Detta notat syftar till att ge en övergripande bild över introduktionen av elbilar. I notatet redovisas några av de tekniklösningar som finns tillgängliga och de som kan realiseras i framtiden. Här ingår information om själva fordonen vad gäller drift och olika batterilösningar, samt olika lösningar på infrastrukturen för överföring och försörjning av elektricitet. Notatet redovisar kort om samhället, föraren och det systemperspektiv som behövs för att avgöra elbilars effekt på miljön. Med i notatet finns även ett flertal initiativ som genomförts eller som planeras vad gäller introduktion av elfordon. Fokus ligger här på den svenska marknaden, men det görs även en internationell utblick. Regeringens och myndigheternas mål och stöd redovisas samt exempel på pågående forskning inom elbilsområdet. Inledningsvis redovisas olika typer av elektriska fordon, rena elbilar, elhybridfordon, plugin elhybridfordon och elbilar med bränsleceller. De kallas gemensamt för Electric Vehicles (EV). Den 30 april 2014 var personbilsbeståndet av laddningsbara elbilar i Sverige 3 714 stycken, varav 1 260 helt eldrivna och 2 454 laddhybrider. Den vanligaste batteritypen i dagens elbilar är litiumjonackumulatorn. Elbilar har i allmänhet ett högt inköpspris, som till stor del utgörs av kostnaden för batteripaketet. Batteriernas livslängd avgör den långsiktiga kostnaden. Andrahandsvärdet är osäkert och det finns också en osäkerhet hos användarna om funktionaliteten (räckvidden). Dessutom lyfts frågan om fordonen är så tysta att de blir en fara i trafiken. För att kunna använda elbilar behövs bland annat uppladdning av batterierna. En undersökning från Trafikanalys visar att 70 % av alla resor med bil i Sverige är kortare än 3 mil, vilket innebär att sådana resor lämpar sig väl för dagens elbilar. I notatet redovisas olika lösningar på hur laddningen av batterierna kan ske samt om och hur strömförsörjningen skulle kunna fungera i infrastrukturen.

Abstract [en]

This is an overview of the field of electric driven vehicles, aiming to give an overview of the introduction of vehicles and supporting the development of the vehicle electrification. Some current technical solutions are presented, and a possible future is outlined, in the field of vehicles, batteries as well as infrastructure and power supply solutions. A brief overview of the system perspective on society, drivers and vehicles and the impact on the environment is given. Some electrification initiatives, realized or planned, are described with a major focus on the Swedish market, although a brief international view is presented. Governmental electrification targets and duly support is presented, as well as some examples of current research in this field. For this document, the electric vehicle is mainly to be understood as a passenger type vehicle with some type of electric power supply. Initially presented are various types of electric vehicles, EV, such as (pure) electric vehicles (with no alternative power), electric hybrid vehicles, plug-in (chargeable) hybrid vehicles and fuel cell vehicles. On the 30th of April 2014 there were 3714 vehicles named “plug-in” hybrid, with an option of external charging, registered in Sweden. Out of those there were 1 260 only electric powered and 2454 of the type chargeable hybrid vehicles. The most common battery type in the modern EV is the lithiumion accumulator. EV normally retain a high purchase price, mainly due to the cost of the batteries. The sustainability of the batteries will affect the overall cost. Second hand value is still very uncertain, as well as an uncertainty by the users about the EV functionality, i.e. the possibility to drive a certain distance. An often raised question is the lack of external vehicle noise, possibly making the EV a potential risk due to low hearing detectability. To be able to use an EV, batteries need to be charged. A survey by Transport Analysis (Sweden) shows that 70% of all transportation made by passenger vehicles in Sweden are shorter than 30 km, with the implication that most of these travels are well suited to be performed by an EV. In the report various solutions to the charging of batteries are presented and whether and how power could be supplied.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2014. , 85 p.
Series
VTI notat, 21-2014
Keyword [en]
Electric vehicle, Planning, Technology, Battery, Contract, Organization (administration)
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
10 Road: Transport, society, policy and planning; 90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 96 Road: Vehicle operating and management
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-6932OAI: oai:DiVA.org:vti-6932DiVA: diva2:734241
Available from: 2014-07-15 Created: 2014-07-15 Last updated: 2017-03-30Bibliographically approved

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Stave, ChristinaCarlson, AnnelieAntonson, HansWenäll, Jan

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