Epidermiology and Treatment of Tuberculosis in Liepaja (Latvia) 1993-2002
Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
Aim To describe the epidemiology of tuberculosis in the city of Liepaja during the last 27 years and the management of patients with tuberculosis during the period 1993-2002; to identify problems in tuberculosis management relevant to increasing level of morbidity and the registered high levels of drug-resistance. Material and methods The cases were all persons reported with tuberculosis in 1975-2002. The data sources were the yearly Health Statistics books at the Latvian Office of Medical Statistics. The study used data from the available 655 individual patient records from Liepaja Tuberculosis Dispensery and TB Register of 1993 – 2002. Information was extracted selectively and extraction sheets containing the variables of interest were developed. The incidence differences according to sex and age, possible clustering of patients in high-risk living areas of the city, differences in occupation of the patients were studied. The differences of time from disease symptoms to diagnosis, as well as investigation data, treatment regimens, the proportions of treatment outcomes were analysed. Analysis was done using EPI-INFO programme for statistical analysis.
Results In the 1980s tuberculosis was under control in Latvia and the incidence was at the European average level. After Latvia had regained independence in 1991, with economical and political disruption and changes in the health care system, TB incidence and mortality in the country increased rapidly as well as in Liepaja. Although not very high compared to global TB rates, there was great concern about TB control in Latvia. In addition, the emergence of drug resistance and multi-drug resistant bacteria made the TB epidemic more serious. The TB incidence increase in children suggested that there was quite a big number of undetected cases of TB. Tuberculosis control and early detection activities were not integrated into the PHC system. Treatment results of TB were quite poor and showed high proportions of interruptions, defaults, relapses. The tuberculosis control Programme in Latvia and Liepaja put much effort into the improvement of the epidemiological situation with TB, focusing on TB control activities and management during the period 1993-2002. The incidence of tuberculosis in Liepaja was higher than in Latvia, particularly in some living areas in the city, and above endemic level. Mortality rate in average was higher as in the whole country. The proportion of socially sensitive groups (children, unemployed, pensioners, disabled) comprised more than 50 % of the tuberculosis incidence. Incidence among medical staff was higher than in general population in the all professional groups. Medical delay of diagnosis decreased, but early detection of tuberculosis was not fully integrated in PHC system. There were quite big differences in numbers of MDR-TB in years 1993-2002. DOTS was introduced in Liepaja five years later than in Latvia –in year 2000 and strategy was not fully successful. The number of positive treatment outcomes increased, but the registered numbers of treatment relapses and defaults were higher than in Latvia .
Conclusions The situation with regard to tuberculosis development and tuberculosis management in Liepaja during the period under study was unfavourable. Particularly : the incidence and mortality rates, much variation in the diagnostic process, results of treatment ,a high proportion of MDR-TB , unsatisfactory links between local government, family doctors and medical professionals and multi-sectoral collaboration in TB control activities , the objectives set up by WHO for DOTS treatment were not reached
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. , 38 p.
Master of Public Health, MPH, ISSN 1104-5701 ; MPH 2006:8
Tuberculosis, Incidence, Mortality, Fatality, Delay in Diagnosis, Case Management, DOTS, Treatment Outcome.
Medical and Health Sciences
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:norden:org:diva-3244OAI: oai:DiVA.org:norden-3244DiVA: diva2:730991
2006-03-15, Nordic School of Public Health NHV, P.O. Box 12133,, SE-402 42 Götebor, Sweden, 13:00 (English)
Eriksson, Bo, Professor
ISBN 91-7997-139-32014-07-012014-06-302015-01-28Bibliographically approved