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Är ett framtida vaccin mot Alzheimers sjukdom möjligt?
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
2014 (Swedish)Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [sv]

Alzheimers sjukdom är en smygande neurodegenerativ demenssjukdom som främst drabbar äldre och som karakteriseras av uppkomsten av amyloidplack och neurofibriller i hjärnan. De vanligaste symptomen är demens, kognitiva problem, inbillningar och aggressivitet. Alzheimer förekommer i två olika former, presenil och senil alzheimer. Den fullständiga mekanismen bakom alzheimer är ännu okänd men två proteiner, beta-amyloid och tau, anses ligga bakom orsaken till alzheimer. Ett tredje inblandat protein som man funnit via genetisk analys är apolipoprotein E. Idag är alzheimer ett växande problem, detta i takt med att världens befolkning blir allt äldre. En problematik finns idag då den symptomatiska behandling som finns mot alzheimer anses vara otillräcklig, ett botemedel eftersträvas därför. Immunterapi är ett botemedel som man i framtiden hoppas kunna erbjuda, detta i form av ett aktivt eller passivt vaccin verksamt mot beta-amyloid. Forskning för att finna ett sådant pågår därför just nu. AN-1792 (aktivt vaccin), CAD106 (aktivt vaccin), Bapineuzumab (passivt vaccin) och Solanezumab (passivt vaccin) är fyra vaccin som har tagits fram och testats på människor. I de vaccinstudier som gjorts har motgångar stötts på men även framgångar gjorts. AN-1792 är det vaccin som visat sig vara effektivast men med svåra biverkningar medan CAD106 är det vaccin som visat sig vara mindre effektivt men säkrast. Bapineuzumab och Solanezumab visade sig däremot båda två vara overksamma. Då flera av de vaccin som framställts har varit verksamma mot amyloidplack anser forskare att ett framtida vaccin mot alzheimer är möjligt att framställa.

Abstract [en]

Alzheimer’s disease is an insidious neurodegenerative dementia disease that primarily affects elderly and is characterized by the formation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. The most common symptoms are dementia, cognitive problems, delusions, and aggressiveness. Alzheimer’s occurs in two forms, presenile and senile Alzheimer’s disease. The complete mechanism behind Alzheimer’s is still unknown but two proteins, beta-amyloid and tau, are considered to be behind the cause of Alzheimer’s. A third protein involved that was found through genetic analysis is apolipoprotein E. Today, Alzheimer’s is a growing problem as the world’s population is getting older. A complex of problems exists as the symptomatic treatment available against Alzheimer’s is considered to be insufficient; a cure is therefore aimed at. Immunotherapy is a cure that hopes can be offered, this in the form of an active or a passive vaccine effective against beta-amyloid. Research to find such a vaccine is therefore under progress right now. AN-1792 (active vaccine), CAD106 (active vaccine), Bapineuzumab (passive vaccine), and Solanezumab (passive vaccine) are four vaccines that have been developed and tested on humans. In the vaccine studies that have been done setbacks have been encountered but also successes have been made. AN-1792 is the vaccine proved to be effective but with severe side effects while CAD106 is the vaccine proved to be less effective but safer. Both Bapineuzumab and Solanezumab showed to be ineffective. Since several of the produced vaccines have been active against amyloid plaques scientists believes that a future vaccine against Alzheimer’s disease is possible to make. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. , 20 p.
Keyword [en]
Alzheimer´s disease, dementia, active vaccine, passive vaccine, cure, future treatment, beta-amyloid, amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, tau, AN-1792, CAD106, Bapineuzumab, Solanezumab
Keyword [sv]
Alzheimers sjukdom, demens, aktivt vaccin, passivt vaccin, botemedel, framtida behandlingsmetod, beta-amyloid, amyloidplack, neurofibriller, tau, AN-1792, CAD106, Bapineuzumab, Solanezumab
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-226441OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-226441DiVA: diva2:725649
Educational program
Bachelor Programme in Biology / Molecular Biology
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-06-16 Created: 2014-06-16 Last updated: 2014-06-16Bibliographically approved

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