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Developments for Improved Performance Vertical-Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
2014 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) is a type of laser diode that emits light from the surface of the chip from which it is manufactured rather than from a cleaved edge as so far has been common for most telecommunication lasers. VCSEL’s low cost, high power efficiency and low power consumption properties make it a very attractive signal source for many applications such as fiber optical communication, optical interconnects, 3D sensing, absorption spectroscopy, laser printing, etc.

In this work, we have developed and evaluated new designs and technologies for extending the performance of VCSELs based on the GaAs material system. A novel scheme for single-mode emission from large size VCSELs, with active region size up to 10 μm, is proposed and discussed. Oxide-free designs of the VCSEL structure either based on an epitaxially regrown p-n-p layer or a buried tunnel junction (BTJ) for lateral current confinement are fabricated and characterized; the latter scheme yielding significant dynamic and static performance improvement as compared to epitaxially regrown design. In addition, the first room-temperature operation of a heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) 980nm VCSEL, a so-called transistor-VCSEL, is demonstrated. This novel three-terminal operational VCSEL is believed to have the potential for a ultrahigh modulation bandwidth due to altered carrier dynamics in the cavity region.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. , 61 p.
Series
TRITA-ICT/MAP AVH, ISSN 1653-7610 ; 2014:11
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-146641ISBN: 978-91-7595-164-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-146641DiVA: diva2:724362
Presentation
2014-06-13, Sal/hall D, KTH-ICT, Isafjordgatan 39, Kista, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20140612

Available from: 2014-06-12 Created: 2014-06-12 Last updated: 2014-06-13Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Performance optimisation of epitaxially regrown 1.3-μm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance optimisation of epitaxially regrown 1.3-μm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers
2009 (English)In: IET Optoelectronics, ISSN 1751-8768, Vol. 3, no 2, 112-121 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A number of GaAs-based long-wavelength, vertical-cavity, surface-emitting laser structures with optical and electrical confinement based on selective area epitaxy have been fabricated and evaluated. The influence on output power, threshold current, thermal stability and modal properties from design parameters such as bottom-distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) doping, cavity doping, dielectric top DBR design and carrier confinement barriers is evaluated. More than 7 mW of output power is emitted from multimode devices with a square active region size of 10 mm. Single-mode power from smaller devices is restricted to 1.5 mW because of a non-optimal cavity shape.

Keyword
VCSELS; OXIDATION; POWER; INP
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8627 (URN)10.1049/iet-opt.2008.0037 (DOI)000265259100007 ()2-s2.0-63049130256 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100825. Uppdaterad från manuskript till artikel (20100825). Tidigare titel: Performance optimization of epitaxially regrown 1.3-μm VCSELsAvailable from: 2008-06-03 Created: 2008-06-03 Last updated: 2014-06-12Bibliographically approved
2. Single-mode InGaAs/GaAs 1.3-mu m VCSELs Based on a Shallow Intracavity Patterning
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Single-mode InGaAs/GaAs 1.3-mu m VCSELs Based on a Shallow Intracavity Patterning
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2010 (English)In: SEMICONDUCTOR LASERS AND LASER DYNAMICS IV / [ed] Panajotov, K; Sciamanna, M; Valle, AA; Michalzik, R, 2010, Vol. 7720, 772021- p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A high-power single-mode 1.3-mu m InGaAs/GaAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) structure employing a novel concept of engineering the optical mode profile to match the gain profile is suggested and demonstrated experimentally and theoretically. In contrast to various singlemode VCSEL approaches reported in the literature so far, based on selective loss or anti-resonant effects to suppress higher order modes, it is due to a novel design to increase the active region size while maintaining single mode emission. The shape of the fundamental mode profile is engineered to be similar to the gain profile which resembles a doughnut shape especially in intra-cavity contacted devices. In this way, the fundamental mode with the best fit to the gain profile can reach the lasing condition earliest and consume all the optical gain, leading to a suppression of higher order modes. Notably, despite this engineered shape of the mode profile, the far field shape remains close to Gaussian. The mode shaping can be achieved by introducing a shallow intracavity patterning before depositing the top mirror. Fabricated device structures consist of a A-Si/SiN/SiO(2) top mirror, modulation-doped current spreading layers, re-grown current confinement layers, three InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells, and a GaAs/AlGaAs bottom mirror. Single mode operation is demonstrated even for devices with active region as large as 10 mu m.

Series
Proceedings of SPIE-The International Society for Optical Engineering, ISSN 0277-786X ; 7720
Keyword
Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, long wavelength, singlemode emission
National Category
Computer and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-39476 (URN)10.1117/12.854443 (DOI)000285296800050 ()2-s2.0-77957877817 (Scopus ID)978-0-8194-8193-1 (ISBN)
Conference
Conference on Semiconductor Lasers and Laser Dynamics IV. Brussels, BELGIUM. APR 12-16, 2010
Available from: 2011-09-09 Created: 2011-09-09 Last updated: 2014-06-12Bibliographically approved
3. Room-temperature operation of 980-nm transistor-vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Room-temperature operation of 980-nm transistor-vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers
Show others...
2013 (English)In: 2013 IEEE 6th International Conference on Advanced Infocomm Technology, ICAIT 2013, IEEE , 2013, 141-142 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We report on the design, fabrication and characterization of pnp-type 980-nm transistor-vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (T-VCSELs). Using an epitaxial regrowth process and a triple-intracavity current injection scheme we demonstrate static performance levels quite comparable to those of conventional VCSELs, including sub-mA threshold base current, mW-range output power and continuous-wave operation at least up to 50°C.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2013
Keyword
transistor laser, transistor VCSEL, VCSEL
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-139896 (URN)10.1109/ICAIT.2013.6621535 (DOI)000342413300064 ()2-s2.0-84888250896 (Scopus ID)978-147990465-5 (ISBN)
Conference
2013 IEEE 6th International Conference on Advanced Infocomm Technology, ICAIT 2013; Hsinchu; Taiwan; 6 July 2013 through 9 July 2013
Note

QC 20140116

Available from: 2014-01-16 Created: 2014-01-15 Last updated: 2014-11-03Bibliographically approved
4. Room-temperature operation of transistor vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Room-temperature operation of transistor vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser
Show others...
2013 (English)In: Electronics Letters, ISSN 0013-5194, E-ISSN 1350-911X, Vol. 49, no 3, 208-209 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The first room-temperature operation of a transistor vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (T-VCSEL) is demonstrated. Fabricated using an epitaxial regrowth process, the T-VCSEL is electrically a pnp-type bipolar junction transistor and consists of an undoped AlGaAs/GaAs bottom DBR, an InGaAs triple-quantum-well active layer, an Si/SiO2 dielectric top DBR, and an intracavity contacting scheme with three electrical terminals. The output power is controlled by the base current in combination with the emitter-collector voltage, showing a voltage-controlled operation mode. A low threshold base-current of 0.8 mA and an output power of 1.8 mW have been obtained at room temperature. Continuous-wave operation was performed up to 50 degrees C.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-122993 (URN)10.1049/el.2012.4243 (DOI)000318542500030 ()2-s2.0-84877727168 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Note

QC 20130605

Available from: 2013-05-30 Created: 2013-05-30 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved

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