Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE credits
Teaching in schools of Afghanistan experience varied challenges. One of them is teaching in large classes. Large Class (LC) is relating to the number of the students per teacher not the size of the classroom. The large classes (overcrowded classes) are discovered in developing countries. Many studies proved that large class has negative impact on teaching and learning. Although, it is difficult for teachers to control and manage LCs and also students are not comfortable in such classes. However, we do not have much information about the impact of large classes in the context of Afghanistan. This study will put light on some aspects of teaching English in LCs in secondary schools of Afghanistan.
This study has been done in 10 upper secondary (grade 10-12) schools (5 girls’ schools and 5 boy’s schools) in Afghanistan Kunduz Province. Questionnaires had been distributed to 60 students (30 boys and 30 girls). Also questionnaires were distributed to 30 teachers (17 male and 13 female) to collect teachers’ views on this issue. Moreover, I observed teaching in classes of 10 teachers’ (out of the same 30 teachers), where an observation form was used which was prepared based on literature review.
When observing teaching in these classes, it was found that teachers did few perceptions in a good manner, most of them had lesson plan, self-confidence and skills of management but they presented lessons with more problems. Most of the teachers believed that LCs create problems in management and control of class and also, affect the students learning achievement. According to the advantages, teachings in large classes provide the opportunities for teachers to improve organizational and managerial skills (UNESCO, 2006). Most of the teachers in this study did not believe that LC improves their organizational and managerial skills. On the other side, the most common teaching methods were group work and Jigsaw which indicate both of teachers and students perspectives in LCs. In addition, majority of the students of LC expressed that mostly teachers communicate with them by asking questions.
The findings of this study show some necessary demands in LCs. Teachers have to improve their pedagogical knowledge and some effective methods such as group work, jigsaw discussion and so on.