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A Protocol Framework for Adaptive Real-Time Communication in Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7278-3620
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Low-power and resource-constrained wireless technology has been regarded as an emerging technology that introduces a paradigm shift in a wide range of applications such as industrial automation, smart grid, home automation and so on. The automation industry has significant contributions to economic revenues, job opportunities and world-class research. The low-power and resource-constrained wireless technology has brought new opportunity and challenges for industrial automation. The solutions of such wireless technology offer benefits in relation to lower cost and more flexible deployments/maintenances than the wired solutions, and new applications that are not possible with wired communication. However, these wireless solutions have been introducing new challenges. Wireless links are inherently unreliable, especially in industrial harsh environment, and wireless interference makes the problem even worse. Low-power consumption is required and real-time communication is generally crucial in industrial automation applications.

This research work addresses that industrial wireless sensor and actuator network (IWSAN) should even be designed to provide service differentiation for wireless medium access and adapt to link dynamics for scheduling algorithms on top of real-time services. Specifically, exceeding the required delay bound for unpredictable and emergency traffic in industrial automation applications could lead to system instability, economic and material losses, system failure and, ultimately, a threat to human safety. Therefore, guaranteeing the timely delivery of the IWSAN critical traffic and its prioritization over regular traffic (e.g. non-critical monitoring traffic) is a significant topic. In addition, the state-of-the-art researches address a multitude of objectives for scheduling algorithms in IWSAN. However, the adaptation to the dynamics of a realistic wireless sensor network has not been investigated in a satisfactory manner. This is a key issue considering the challenges within industrial applications, given the time-constraints and harsh environments.

In response to those challenges, a protocol framework for adaptive real-time communication in IWSAN is proposed. It mainly consists of a priority-based medium access protocol (MAC) and its extension for routing critical traffic, a hybrid scheme for acyclic traffic, and adaptive scheduling algorithms. To the best of our knowledge, the priority-based MAC solution is the first priority-enhanced MAC protocol compatible with industrial standards for IWSAN. The proposed solutions have been implemented in TinyOS and evaluated on a test-bed of Telosb motes and the TOSSIM network simulator. The experimental results indicate that the proposed priority-based solutions are able to efficiently handle different traffic categories and achieve a significant improvement in the delivery latency. The hybrid scheme for acyclic traffic increases the throughput and reduces the delay compared to the current industrial standards. Numerical results show that the adaptive scheduling algorithms improve the quality of service for the entire network. They achieve significant improvements for realistic dynamic wireless sensor networks when compared to existing scheduling algorithms with the aim to minimize latency for real-time communication.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Kopieringen Mittuniversitetet , 2014. , p. 199
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 178
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-22110Local ID: STCISBN: 978-91-87557-31-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-22110DiVA, id: diva2:722303
Public defence
2014-03-06, L111, Sundsvall, 13:15 (English)
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-06-12 Created: 2014-06-06 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. PriorityMAC: A Priority-Enhanced MAC Protocol for Critical Traffic in Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>PriorityMAC: A Priority-Enhanced MAC Protocol for Critical Traffic in Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks
2014 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 824-835Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper proposes PriorityMAC, a priority-enhanced medium access control protocol, designed for critical traffic in industrial wireless sensor and actuator networks (IWSAN). A notable trend in industrial automation in recent years has been the replacement of wired communication by IWSANs. Exceeding the required delay bound for unpredictable and emergency traffic could lead to system instability, economic and material losses, system failure, and, ultimately, a threat to human safety. Guaranteeing the timely delivery of the IWSAN critical traffic and its prioritization over regular traffic (e.g., noncritical monitoring traffic) is a significant challenge. Therefore, we present the design, implementation, performance analysis, and evaluation of PriorityMAC. A series of novel mechanisms (e.g., high priority indication space) are proposed to enable high-priority traffic to hijack the transmission bandwidth of the low-priority traffic. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first priority-enhanced MAC protocol compatible with industrial standards for IWSAN. PriorityMAC is implemented in TinyOS and evaluated on a testbed of Telosb motes. The experimental results indicate that PriorityMAC efficiently handles different traffic categories with different latency requirements, thereby achieving a significant improvement in the delivery latency compared with the current industrial standards. © 2005-2012 IEEE.

Keywords
industrial wireless sensor and actuator networks (IWSANs), ISA100.11a, MAC protocols, priority, WirelessHART
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-21050 (URN)10.1109/TII.2013.2280081 (DOI)000336668600082 ()2-s2.0-84891065883 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Note

Art. No.: 6587846

Available from: 2014-01-14 Created: 2014-01-14 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
2. CCA-Embedded TDMA Enabling Acyclic Traffic in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>CCA-Embedded TDMA Enabling Acyclic Traffic in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks
Show others...
2013 (English)In: Ad hoc networks, ISSN 1570-8705, E-ISSN 1570-8713, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 1105-1121Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A growing trend in the automation industry is to use wireless technologies to reduce cable costs and deployment time, unlock stranded information in deployed devices and enable wireless control applications. The WirelessHART protocol is the first open and interoperable industrial wireless sensor network standard, which proposes a combination of time division multiple access (TDMA) and channel hopping as a medium access control (MAC) protocol. TDMA is a schedule-based protocol, which is suitable for predictable cyclic traffic. However, for burst acyclic traffic, TDMA degenerates into an inefficient slotted ALOHA. In this article, we propose a complementary mechanism to TDMA, CCA-Embedded TDMA, which can be applied to improve the transmission efficiency and system stability of TDMA-based systems such as the WirelessHART protocol. A Markov model is proposed to evaluate the efficiency of system throughput and expected delay of CCA-Embedded TDMA. Furthermore, we show by analytical and simulation results that our proposed CCA-Embedded TDMA scheme can increase the throughput by 100% and reduce the expected delay by 75% for a common scenario. We also implement CCA-Embedded TDMA into an embedded system as a part of the WirelessHART MAC protocol. The experimental results verify the efficiency of CCA-Embedded TDMA and its backward compatibility with the WirelessHART protocol.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier: , 2013
Keywords
Medium access control (MAC); WirelessHART protocol; Wireless sensor network (WSN); Clear channel assessment (CCA); Time division multiple access (TDMA); Markov model
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-18833 (URN)10.1016/j.adhoc.2012.12.002 (DOI)000317887300026 ()2-s2.0-84875731246 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Available from: 2013-04-26 Created: 2013-04-26 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
3. SAS-TDMA: A Source Aware Scheduling Algorithm for Real-Time Communication in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>SAS-TDMA: A Source Aware Scheduling Algorithm for Real-Time Communication in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks
2013 (English)In: Wireless networks, ISSN 1022-0038, E-ISSN 1572-8196, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 1155-1170Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Scheduling algorithms play an importantrole for TDMA-based wireless sensor networks. ExistingTDMA scheduling algorithms address a multitude of objectives.However, their adaptation to the dynamics of a realistic wirelesssensor network has not been investigated in a satisfactorymanner. This is a key issue considering the challenges withinindustrial applications for wireless sensor networks, given thetime-constraints and harsh environments.In response to those challenges, we present SAS-TDMA, asource-aware scheduling algorithm. It is a cross-layer solutionwhich adapts itself to network dynamics. It realizes a tradeoffbetween scheduling length and its configurational overheadincurred by rapid responses to routes changes. We implementeda TDMA stack instead of the default CSMA stack and introduceda cross-layer for scheduling in TOSSIM, the TinyOS simulator.Numerical results show that SAS-TDMA improves the qualityof service for the entire network. It achieves significant improvementsfor realistic dynamic wireless sensor networks whencompared to existing scheduling algorithms with the aim tominimize latency for real-time communication.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
US: Springer-Verlag New York, 2013
Keywords
Real-time communication, TDMA scheduling algorithms, wireless sensor networks, cross-layer protocol
National Category
Communication Systems Computer Systems Embedded Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-17632 (URN)10.1007/s11276-012-0524-2 (DOI)000321974700009 ()2-s2.0-84880319804 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2012-12-11 Created: 2012-12-10 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
4. Distributed Data Gathering Scheduling Protocol for Wireless Sensor Actor and Actuator Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distributed Data Gathering Scheduling Protocol for Wireless Sensor Actor and Actuator Networks
2012 (English)In: Communications (ICC), 2012 IEEE International Conference on, IEEE Communications Society, 2012, p. 7120-7125Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a cross-layer distributed scheduling protocol for sensor data gathering transmission inwireless sensor actor and actuator networks. We propose the parent-dominant decision scheduling with collision free (PDDS-CF) algorithm to adapt the dynamics of links in a realistic low-power wireless network. In addition, the protocol has a light-weight mechanism to maintain the conflict links. We have evaluated the protocol andimplementation in TinyOS and Telosb hardware. The experiment shows that our protocol has robustness to the topology changes and it has significant improvements to reduce the traffic load in realistic wireless networks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Communications Society, 2012
Keywords
Data Gathering, Distributed Scheduling, WiSAAN, Wireless HART
National Category
Communication Systems Computer Systems Embedded Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-17634 (URN)10.1109/ICC.2012.6364802 (DOI)000312855707075 ()2-s2.0-84871946392 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)978-1-4577-2051-2 (ISBN)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Conference
2012 IEEE International Conference on Communications, 10-15 June 2012
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2012-12-17 Created: 2012-12-10 Last updated: 2016-10-20Bibliographically approved
5. Joint Routing and MAC for Critical Traffic in Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Joint Routing and MAC for Critical Traffic in Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks
2013 (English)In: IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, 2013, p. Art. no. 6563730-Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper proposes Delay Bounded Routing (DBR) and a Priority-based Medium Access Control method (PriorityMAC), designed for routing critical traffic in Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks (IWSAN). A notable trend in industrial automation in recent years is the replacement of wired communication with IWSAN. Exceeding the required delay bound for unpredictable and emergency traffic could lead to system instability, economic and material losses, system failure and, ultimately, a threat to human safety. Guaranteeing the timely delivery of the critical traffic and its prioritization over regular traffic (e. g. non-critical monitoring traffic) is a significant challenge. Therefore, we present the design, implementation and evaluation of DBR and PriorityMAC. DBR and PriorityMAC are implemented in TinyOS and evaluated on a testbed of Telosb motes. The experimental results indicate that our protocol achieves a significant improvement of the end-to-end delivery latency compared to the current industrial standards.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-20659 (URN)10.1109/ISIE.2013.6563730 (DOI)000326324900142 ()2-s2.0-84881651867 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)978-146735194-2 (ISBN)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Conference
2013 IEEE 22nd International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, ISIE 2013; Taipei; Taiwan; 28 May 2013 through 31 May 2013; Code 98542
Available from: 2013-12-12 Created: 2013-12-11 Last updated: 2016-10-20Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
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  • en-US
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  • nn-NO
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  • Other locale
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Output format
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  • asciidoc
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