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Ældres opfattelse og håndtering af at falde samt motivation for faldforebyggende tiltag
Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
2009 (Danish)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesisAlternative title
Older people’s perception of and coping with falling, and motivation for fall-prevention initiative (English)
Abstract [da]

Formål: Formålet var at beskrive variationen i ældres opfattelse af at falde, hvordan ældre håndterede fald, samt hvad der påvirkede ældres motivation til at deltage i faldforebyggende tiltag med henblik på at kunne målrette fremtidige indsatser.

Metode: Der blev foretaget en kvalitativ interviewundersøgelse med 14 ældre mennesker over 65 år som efter et fald henvendte sig på en skadestue på et universitetshospital i Danmark. Fænomenografi blev anvendt som analysemetode.

Resultater: Der blev dannet fem beskrivende kategorier med tilsammen 15 underkategorier. De fem kategorier var: Følelsesmæssig opfattelse af at falde; at falde har konsekvenser; tager hånd om situationen; støtte fra omgivelserne; og motivation og demotivation.Undersøgelsen viste variation i ældres opfattelse af at falde. De ældre accepterede at falde fordi de var blevet ældre. Opfattelsen var, at fald både var flovt og pinligt og havde en forklaring. Nogle ældre oplevede frygten for at falde som dominerende. De ældre opfattede ikke fald som en risikofaktor, der skulle tages hånd om, men håndterede situationen ved at begrænse deres bevægemuligheder eller ved at fravælge aktiviteter. Hvis kravene oversteg de ældres ressourcer, søgte de hjælp fra de pårørende eller den praktiserende læge. De ældre fik støtte, anerkendelse og accept til at foretage valgene af omgivelserne. De ældre blev motiveret af forhold, som autonomi, kompetence og sociale relationer og foretrak aktiviteter, der spredte glæde og nydelse og helst i sociale sammenhænge. De ældre værnede om deres identitet med at ville være medbestemmende om, hvad de deltog i, men mødte forhold i omgivelserne, som var hæmmende for deres motivation.

Konklusion: Fremtidige faldforebyggende tiltag skal målrettes ældres behov og tage højde for, at der ikke er én måde men mange måder at opfatte fald på, og at ældre i høj grad selv klarer at håndtere fald, men at de valgte strategier, ikke nødvendigvis er de mest hensigtsmæssige. De ældres netværk og den praktiserende læge kan med fordel spille en aktiv rolle i forbindelse med faldforebyggelse. Ved planlægningen af faldforebyggende interventioner skal der tages hensyn til, at ældres motivation påvirkes af, i hvilken omfang programmerne understøtter de ældres behov for autonomi, kompetence og sociale relationer.

Abstract [en]

Aim: This study aimed to describe variations in elderly people’s perceptions of falling, and how they coped with falls. To target future initiatives to needs of the elderly, we also sought to determine what motivated them to participate in fall-prevention initiatives.

Method: We collected data using semi-structured interviews with 14 elderly individuals (65 years +) who had contacted the emergency ward at a university hospital in Denmark. We analyzed the data using a phenomenographic approach that focused on describing varying perceptions by the elderly on the phenomenon of “falling.”

Results: Five categories and 15 subcategories emerged from the interviews. The five main categories included emotional perceptions of falling; falling has consequences; handling the situation; support from the social network; motivation and demotivation. The study showed that older people’s perceptions of falling vary. Individuals accepted falling because they had become older. Falls were embarrassing and could be explained. The fear of falling was the foremost concern of some individuals. The elderly did consider falls a meaningful risk factor, but coped by restricting movements or dropping activities to prevent falls in the future. If demands exceeded resources, they asked their relatives or the GP for help. The elderly gained support, approval, and acceptance from their social network when deciding which coping strategies to use. The elderly were motivated by autonomy, competence, and relatedness and they preferred activities that increased happiness and enjoyment, preferably in a social atmosphere. The elderly protected their identity self-determining their activities, but they often encountered factors in their surroundings that restricted motivation.

Conclusion: Future fall-prevention initiatives must target the needs of the elderly and consider that there are not one but many ways of perceiving falling. Further, the coping strategies that elderly individuals develop are not necessarily convenient. Social networks and the GP can play active roles in encouraging the elderly to participate in fall-prevention initiatives. When planning fall-prevention interventions, one should consider the extent to which such programs support the elderly individual’s need for autonomy, competence, and relatedness, because these factors affect motivation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. , 53 p.
Series
Master of Public Health, MPH, ISSN 1104-5701 ; MPH 2009:3
Keyword [en]
Elderly, Fall Prevention, Coping, Motivation, Phenomenography
Keyword [da]
Ældre, faldforebyggelse, coping, motivation, fænomenografi
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:norden:org:diva-3163OAI: oai:DiVA.org:norden-3163DiVA: diva2:722053
Presentation
2009-08-28, Nordic School of Public Health NHV, Box 12133, 402 42 Göteborg, Sweden, 14:29 (Danish)
Supervisors
Note

ISBN 978-91-85721-70-2

Available from: 2014-06-05 Created: 2014-06-05 Last updated: 2014-07-07Bibliographically approved

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