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Carbon Balance Implications Of Forest Biomass Production Potential
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3208-7003
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Forests in boreal and temperate forest-ecosystems have an important function since they sequester atmospheric carbon by uptake of carbon-dioxide in photosynthesis, and transfer and store carbon in the forest ecosystem. Forest material can be used for bio-fuel purposes and substitute fossil fuels, and supply wood products, which can replace carbon- and energy-intensive materials. Therefore it is vital to consider the role of forests regarding today´s aim to mitigate climate change. This thesis assess (i) how climate change affects future forest carbon balance, (ii) the importance of different strategies for forest management systems, and biomass production for the carbon balance, (iii) how the use of forest production affect the total carbon balance in a lifecycle perspective, and (iv) how the Swedish carbon balance is affected from the standpoint of both the actual use of forest raw material within Sweden and what Swedish forestry exports. The analysis was made mainly in a long-term perspective (60-300 year) to illustrate the importance of temporal and also the spatial perspective, as the analysis includes stand level, landscape level, and national level. In this thesis, forestry was considered a system. All activities, from forest regeneration to end use of forest products, were entities of this system. In the evaluation, made from a systems perspective, we used life-cycle analysis to estimate carbon stock in different system flows. Different forest management systems and forest production were integrated in the analyses. Different forest management scenarios were designed for the Swedish forest management in combination with the effect of future climate change; (i) intensive forest practice aiming at increased growth, (ii) increased forest set-aside areas, changes in forest management systems for biomass production, and (iii) how the use of forest production affect the total carbon balance (construction material, bioenergy and other domestic use). The results showed that future climate changes and intensive forest management with increased production could increase the biomass production and the potential use of forest raw material. This has a positive effect on carbon storage for the forest carbon stock, litter production and carbon storage in the ground etc. and help mitigating carbon-dioxide. Increased forest set-aside areas can increase the short-term carbon stock in forest ecosystems, but will reduce the total long-term carbon balance. The net carbon balance for clear-cut forestry did not differ significantly from continuous-cover forestry, but was rather a question of level of growth. Most important, in the long term, was according to our analysis, how forest raw material is used. Present Swedish forestry and use of forest raw material, both within Sweden and abroad, reduce carbon-dioxide emissions and mitigate climate change. The positive effect for the total carbon balance and climate benefit take place mostly abroad, due to the Swedish high level of export of wood products and the higher substitution effects achieved outside Swedish borders. One strategy is to increase production, harvest and change the use of Swedish forest raw material to replace more carbon intensive material, which can contribute to significant emission reduction. Carbon-dioxide mitigation, as a result of present Swedish forestry, was shown to be almost of the same level as the total yearly emission of greenhouse gases. The total carbon benefit would increase if the biomass production and felling increased and if Swedish wood products replaced carbon intensive materials.This thesis shows also that, by changing forest management, increase the growth and the use of forest raw material and export of forest material we can contribute to even larger climate benefits. In a long-term perspective, the substitution effects and replacement of carbon- and energy-intensive materials are of greater significance than carbon storage effects in forests. A more production oriented forestry needs to make balances and increase the prerequisite for biological diversity, improve recreation possibilities, and protect sensitive land areas and watersheds.Climate benefits, from Swedish forestry, are highly dependent on policy decision-making and how that can steer the direction for the Swedish forestry.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Östersund: Mid Sweden University , 2014. , 80 p.
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 193
National Category
Forest Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-22075ISBN: 978-91-87557-66-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-22075DiVA: diva2:721033
Public defence
2014-06-10, Q221, Mittuniversitetet, Östersund, 10:00 (English)
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-06-03 Created: 2014-06-03 Last updated: 2014-08-27Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Effects of climate change on biomass production and substitution in north-central Sweden
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2011 (English)In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 35, no 10, 4340-4355 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study we estimate the effects of climate change on forest production in north-central Sweden, as well as the potential climate changemitigation feedback effects of the resulting increased carbon stock and forest product use. Our results show that an average regional temperature rise of 4 °C over the next 100 years may increase annual forest production by 33% and potential annual harvest by 32%, compared to a reference case without climate change. This increased biomass production, if used to substitute fossil fuels and energy-intensive materials, can result in a significant net carbon emission reduction. We find that carbon stock in forest biomass, forest soils, and wood products also increase, but this effect is less significant than biomass substitution. A total net reduction in carbon emissions of up to 104 Tg of carbon can occur over 100 years, depending on harvest level and reference fossil fuel. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2011
Keyword
Biomass substitution; Climate change; Climate feedback; Forest production; Sweden
National Category
Environmental Sciences Forest Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-14484 (URN)10.1016/j.biombioe.2011.08.005 (DOI)000297035100029 ()2-s2.0-80053592930 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2011-09-14 Created: 2011-09-14 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
2. Potential effects of intensive forestry on biomass production and total carbon balance in north-central Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Potential effects of intensive forestry on biomass production and total carbon balance in north-central Sweden
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2012 (English)In: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 15, no 1, 106-124 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We quantify the potential effects of intensive forest management activities on forest production in north-central Sweden over the next 100 years, and calculate the potential climate change mitigation feedback effect due to the resulting increased carbon stock and increased use of forest products. We analyze and compare four different forest management scenarios (Reference, Environment, Production, and Maximum), all of which include the expected effects of climate change based on SRES B2 scenario. Forest management practices are intensified in Production scenario, and further intensified in Maximum scenario. Four different models, BIOMASS, HUGIN, Q-model, and Substitution model, were used to quantify net primary production, forest production and harvest potential, soil carbon, and biomass substitution of fossil fuels and non-wood materials, respectively. After integrating the models, our results show that intensive forestry may increase forest production by up to 26% and annual harvest by up to 19%, compared to the Reference scenario. The greatest single effect on the carbon balance is from using increased biomass production to substitute for fossil fuels and energy intensive materials. Carbon stocks in living tree biomass, forest soil and wood products also increase. In total, a net carbon emission reduction of up to 132 Tg (for Maximum scenario) is possible during the next 100 years due to intensive forest management in two Swedish counties, Jämtland and Västernorrland. 

Keyword
Carbon emission reduction; Climate change; Forest biomass; Forest management; Wood substitution
National Category
Environmental Sciences Forest Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-14713 (URN)10.1016/j.envsci.2011.09.005 (DOI)000301326000011 ()2-s2.0-83255187159 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2011-11-11 Created: 2011-11-11 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
3. Potential Roles of Swedish Forestry in the Context of Climate Change Mitigation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Potential Roles of Swedish Forestry in the Context of Climate Change Mitigation
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2014 (English)In: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 5, no 4, 557-578 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In Sweden, where forests cover more than 60% of the land area, silviculture and the use of forest products by industry and society play crucial roles in the national carbon balance. A scientific challenge is to understand how different forest management and wood use strategies can best contribute to climate change mitigation benefits. This study uses a set of models to analyze the effects of different forest management and wood use strategies in Sweden on carbon dioxide emissions and removals through 2105. If the present Swedish forest use strategy is continued, the long-term climate change mitigation benefit will correspond to more than 60 million tons of avoided or reduced emissions of carbon dioxide annually, compared to a scenario with similar consumption patterns in society but where non-renewable products are used instead of forest-based products. On average about 470 kg of carbon dioxide emissions are avoided for each cubic meter of biomass harvested, after accounting for carbon stock changes, substitution effects and all emissions related to forest management and industrial processes. Due to Sweden’s large export share of forest-based products, the climate change mitigation effect of Swedish forestry is larger abroad than within the country. The study also shows that silvicultural methods to increase forest biomass production can further reduce net carbon dioxide emissions by an additional 40 million tons of per year. Forestry’s contribution to climate change mitigation could be significantly increased if management of the boreal forest were oriented towards increased biomass production and if more wood were used to substitute fossil fuels and energy-intensive materials.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel, Switzerland: , 2014
Keyword
forest growth; harvest; substitution; carbon dioxide; abroad; in-country
National Category
Forest Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-21767 (URN)10.3390/f5040557 (DOI)000336905000001 ()2-s2.0-84902650544 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-04-14 Created: 2014-04-14 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
4. Carbon balance comparison of continuous-cover and clear-cut forestry in Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Carbon balance comparison of continuous-cover and clear-cut forestry in Sweden
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Forest Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-22078 (URN)
Available from: 2014-06-03 Created: 2014-06-03 Last updated: 2014-06-03Bibliographically approved

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