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Process planning for precision manufacturing: An approach based on methodological studies
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Process planning is a task comprising a broad range of activities to design and develop an appropriate manufacturing process for producing a part. Interpretation of the part design, selection of manufacturing processes, definition of operations, operation sequences, machining datums, geometrical dimensions and tolerances are some common activities associated with the task. Process planning is also “the link between product design and manufacturing” with the supplementary commission to support design of competitive products.

Process planning is of a complex and dynamic nature, often managed by a skilled person with few, or no, explicit methods to solve the task. The work is heuristic and the result is depending on personal experiences and decisions. Since decades, there have been plenty of attempts to develop systems for computer-aided process planning (CAPP). CAPP is still awaiting its breakthrough and one reason is the gap between the functionality of the CAPP systems and the industrial process planning practice.

This thesis has an all-embracing aim of finding methods that cover essential activities for process planning, including abilities to predict the outcome of a proposed manufacturing process. This is realised by gathering supporting methods suitable to manage both qualitative and quantitative characterisation and analyses of a manufacturing process.

The production research community has requested systematisation and deeper understanding of industrial process planning. This thesis contributes with a flow chart describing the process planning process (PPP), in consequence of the methodological studies. The flow chart includes process planning activities and information flows between these activities.

The research has been performed in an industrial environment for high volume manufacturing of gear parts. Though gear manufacturing has many distinctive features, the methods and results presented in this thesis are generally applicable to precision manufacturing of many kinds of mechanical parts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. , xiii, 72 p.
Series
TRITA-IIP, ISSN 1650-1888 ; 14:04
Keyword [en]
Process planning, precision manufacturing, machining, tolerance chain analysis, process behaviour, process performance, process capability, in-process workpiece.
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
Production Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-145433ISBN: 978-91-7595-172-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-145433DiVA: diva2:718386
Public defence
2014-06-10, Sal M311, Brinellvägen 68, KTH, Stockholm, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
XPRES - Initiative for excellence in production research
Note

QC 20140522

Available from: 2014-05-22 Created: 2014-05-20 Last updated: 2015-10-16Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Process modelling using upstream analysis of manufacturing sequences
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Process modelling using upstream analysis of manufacturing sequences
2015 (English)In: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 0268-3768, E-ISSN 1433-3015, Vol. 81, no 9-12, 1999-2016 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The manufacturing of components requires several manufacturing process steps that are performed in a sequence, during which the raw material is progressively converted into finished parts. The aim with simulation of manufacturing sequences is to replicate the aggregate effects of the process steps on key features of the finished product and manufacturing features. With the support of a successful simulation methodology, it will thereby be possible for process planners to evaluate virtually and select process steps to be included in the manufacturing sequence and to optimize process parameters. The motivation to implement sequential simulation in industry is therefore strong and will reduce time and cost in process planning. The modelling and simulation of complete manufacturing sequences is, however, a challenge which may lead to unrealistic and time-consuming modelling efforts and extensive computational requirements. This is due to the often complex material transformations through several consecutive process steps. In order to adapt sequential simulation into an industrial environment, simplifications are therefore necessary. This paper proposes a method for simplified metamodelling of manufacturing sequences, using upstream selection of process steps and definition of interconnected models. The method is presented as an algorithm and will improve the efficiency in the modelling of manufacturing sequences. The usability of the algorithm is demonstrated with two industrial cases: a bevel gear pinion and a steering arm.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer London, 2015
Keyword
Process planning, Manufacturing sequence, Process modelling, Process simulation, Finite element method, Metamodel builder, Breadth first search
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-175533 (URN)10.1007/s00170-015-7076-4 (DOI)000365224400044 ()2-s2.0-84947494448 (Scopus ID)
Funder
XPRES - Initiative for excellence in production research
Note

QC 20151203

Updated from Manuscript to Article.

Available from: 2015-10-16 Created: 2015-10-16 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
2. Analysis of process parameters during press quenching of bevel gear parts
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of process parameters during press quenching of bevel gear parts
2012 (English)In: The 5th International Swedish Production Symposium: 6th-8th of November 2012 Linköping, Sweden / [ed] Mats Björkman, 2012, 251-259 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Defining manufacturing tolerances is an important task for a process planner before starting production of a new product or introducing new processes. One of the more complex processes to handle is the heat treatment of gears. Press quenching is a heat treatment method where the gear is mechanically forced to keep or attain the desired geometry, with less geometrical distortions in comparison to oil bath quenching. The objective of this paper is to discover how design of experiments can be used to scrutinize press quenching of bevel gears. The first part of this investigation shows how different process parameter settings influence geometry of the bevel gear. Based on the results of the experiments, predictions and statistical simulations, the outcome of the press quenching process can be estimated. Estimations for the number of defect parts then form the basis for evaluating whether the proposed tolerances meet the quality requirements. The work is based on an industrial case where 55 bevel gear crown wheels for heavy trucks are carburized and then case hardened in a Gleason press quenching machine.

Keyword
Press quenching, Bevel gears, Design of experiments, Tolerance analysis, Process planning
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
SRA - Production
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-116504 (URN)
Conference
Swedish Production Symposium SPS12; Linköpings University 6-8 november 2012
Funder
XPRES - Initiative for excellence in production research
Note

QC 20130909

Available from: 2013-01-21 Created: 2013-01-21 Last updated: 2014-05-22Bibliographically approved
3. Tolerance chain design and analysis of in-process workpiece
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tolerance chain design and analysis of in-process workpiece
2013 (English)In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Advanced Manufacturing Engineering and Technologies: Vol. 2 / [ed] Andreas Archenti and Antonio Maffei, 2013, 305-315 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Process planning comprises a broad range of activities to define a complete process chain for the manufacturing of a product. Beside the definition of proper operations and operation sequence, the definition of in-process tolerances for multi-step machining is decisive for the possibilities to achieve a well running and economical production. This paper introduces the dimension dependency chart (DDC) as a methodology based on tolerance charting technique where the complete manufacturing process chain can be efficiently represented, analysed and developed. The DDC uses mapping matrices for the transformation of operation element behaviour to the process steps defined by the process planner and further on to the dimensions and tolerances for the final part. Two important comparisons can be done by using the DDC; the expected behaviour of the in-process steps versus the tolerances defined by the process planner and the allowed variations of the final part dimensions versus the designed product specification.

Keyword
Process planning, tolerance chain, tolerance chart, dimension dependency chart, DDC
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-136758 (URN)978-91-7501-893-5 (ISBN)
Conference
NEWTECH 2013, the International Conference on Advanced Manufacturing Engineering and Technologies, Stockholm, Sweden27-30 October 2013
Funder
XPRES - Initiative for excellence in production research
Note

QC 20140522

Available from: 2013-12-09 Created: 2013-12-09 Last updated: 2014-05-22Bibliographically approved
4. Process chain based workpiece variation simulation for performance utilisation analysis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Process chain based workpiece variation simulation for performance utilisation analysis
2014 (English)In: Proceedings of The 6th International Swedish Production Symposium 2014, Chalmers university , 2014Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Propagation of shape variations in multi-step manufacturing processes, constrained by tolerance chains, is the consequence of sequenced operations defined in process planning. A key task in process planning is to define in-process workpiece (IPW) tolerances for efficient production ensuring conformance to the product design specification and good utilisation of the manufacturing resources. A dimension dependency chart has been developed for analysis of linked IPW tolerance chains and simulation of shape variation propagation caused by systematic and random errors. The results show how the traditional process capability index, used as an acceptance criterion for IPW tolerancing, limits the process performance utilisation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Chalmers university, 2014
Keyword
Process planning, machining, tolerance chain, process capability index, dimension dependency chart
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
Production Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-145549 (URN)978-91-980974-1-2 (ISBN)
Conference
The 6th International Swedish Production Symposium 2014, Gothenburg,September 16-18 2014
Funder
XPRES - Initiative for excellence in production research
Note

QC 20150218

Available from: 2014-05-22 Created: 2014-05-22 Last updated: 2015-02-18Bibliographically approved

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