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Silicon Carbide BipolarTechnology for High Temperature Integrated Circuits
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The availability of integrated circuits (ICs) capable of 500 or 600° C operation can be extremely beneficial for many important applications, such as transportation and energy sector industry. It can in fact enable the realization of improved sensing and control of turbine engine combustion leading to better fuel efficiency and reduced pollution. In addition, the possibility of placing integrated circuits in engine hot-sections can significantly reduce the weight and improve the reliability of automobiles and aircrafts, eliminating extra wires and cooling systems.

In order to develop such electronics semiconductors with superior high temperature characteristics compared to Si are required. Thanks to its wide bandgap,  almost three times that of Si, Silicon carbide (SiC) has been suggested for this purpose. Its low intrinsic carrier concentration, orders of magnitude lower than that of Si, makes SiC devices capable of operating at much higher temperatures than Si devices.

In this thesis solutions for 600° C SiC bipolar ICs have been investigated in depth at device physics, circuit and process integration level. Successful operation of devices and circuits  has been proven from -40 up to 600° C.

The developed technology features NPN and lateral PNP transistors, two levels of interconnects and one extra metal level acting as over-layer metallization for device contacts. The improved SiC etching and passivation procedures have provided NPN transistors with high current gain of approximately 200. Furthermore, non-monotonous current gain temperature dependences have been observed for NPN and PNP transistors. The current gain of NPN transistors increases with temperature at high enough temperatures above 300° C  depending on the base doping concentration. The current gain of lateral PNP transistors has, instead, shown a maximum of approximately 37 around 0° C.

Finally, high-temperature operation of 2-input ECL-based OR-NOR gates and  3- and 11-stage ring oscillators has been demonstrated. For the OR-NOR gates stable noise margins of approximately 1 or 1.5 V, depending on the gate design, have been observed up to 600° C with a delay-power consumption product of approximately 100 nJ in the range -40 to 500° C.  Ring oscillators with different designs, including more than 100 devices, have been  successfully tested in the range 27 to 300° C. Non-monotonous and almost constant temperature dependences have been observed for the oscillation frequency of 3- and 11-stage ring oscillator, respectively. In addition, room temperature propagation delays of a single inverter stage have been estimated to be approximately 100 and 40 ns for 3- and 11-stage ring oscillators, respectively. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. , viii, 120 p.
Series
TRITA-ICT/MAP AVH, ISSN 1653-7610 ; 2014:07
Keyword [en]
silicon carbide (SiC), bipolar junction transistor (BJT), current gain, surface passivation, SiC etching, complementary bipolar, lateral PNP, Darlington transistors, SPICE modeling, high-temperature, integrated circuits, emitter coupled logic (ECL)
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-145401ISBN: 978-91-7595-135-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-145401DiVA: diva2:718091
Public defence
2014-06-10, Sal D, Forum, Isafjordgatan 39, Kista, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20140522

Available from: 2014-05-22 Created: 2014-05-19 Last updated: 2014-05-22Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. SiC Etching and Sacrificial Oxidation Effects on the Performance of 4H-SiC BJTs
Open this publication in new window or tab >>SiC Etching and Sacrificial Oxidation Effects on the Performance of 4H-SiC BJTs
2014 (English)In: Materials Science Forum, ISSN 0255-5476, E-ISSN 1662-9752, Vol. 778-780, 1005-1008 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Performance of 4H-SiC BJTs fabricated on a single 100mm wafer with different SiC etching and sacrificial oxidation procedures is compared in terms of peak current gain in relation to base intrinsic sheet resistance. The best performance was achieved when device mesas were defined by inductively coupled plasma etching and a dry sacrificial oxide was grown at 1100 °C.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2014
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-145399 (URN)10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.778-780.1005 (DOI)000336634100239 ()2-s2.0-84896065299 (Scopus ID)978-3-03835-010-1 (ISBN)
Conference
15th International Conference on Silicon Carbide and Related Materials (ICSCRM 2013), September 29 – October 4, 2013, Miyazaki, Japan
Note

QC 20140522. QC 20160304

Available from: 2014-05-19 Created: 2014-05-19 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
2. Improved surface passivation by enhanced N2O annealing for high gain 4H-SiC BJTs
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improved surface passivation by enhanced N2O annealing for high gain 4H-SiC BJTs
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-145397 (URN)
Note

QS 2014

Available from: 2014-05-19 Created: 2014-05-19 Last updated: 2016-02-12Bibliographically approved
3. High-temperature characterization of 4H-SiC darlington transistors for low voltage applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High-temperature characterization of 4H-SiC darlington transistors for low voltage applications
2013 (English)In: Materials Science Forum, ISSN 0255-5476, E-ISSN 1662-9752, Vol. 740-742, 966-969 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

4H-SiC bipolar Darlington transistors (D-BJTs) for low voltage applications have been fabricated, simulated and characterized up to 300 °C, where they exhibit a current gain of 460. The influence on D-BJT current gain of relative current capability of driver and output BJTs has been investigated, and the collector resistance has been identified as the main limitation for the D-BJTs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2013
Keyword
Bipolar transistor (BJT), Darlington pair, High temperature, Silicon carbide (SiC), Collector resistance, Current gains, Darlington, Darlington transistor, Low-voltage applications, Relative currents, Silicon carbides (SiC), Characterization, Silicon carbide, Bipolar transistors
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-134688 (URN)10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.740-742.966 (DOI)000319785500230 ()2-s2.0-84874041675 (Scopus ID)978-303785624-6 (ISBN)
Conference
9th European Conference on Silicon Carbide and Related Materials, ECSCRM 2012, 2 September 2012 through 6 September 2012, St. Petersburg
Funder
StandUpSwedish Foundation for Strategic Research
Note

QC 20131127. QC 20160304

Available from: 2013-11-27 Created: 2013-11-27 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
4. Measurements and simulations of lateral PNP transistors in a SiC NPN BJT technology for high temperature integrated circuits
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measurements and simulations of lateral PNP transistors in a SiC NPN BJT technology for high temperature integrated circuits
Show others...
2011 (English)In: Materials Science Forum, ISSN 0255-5476, E-ISSN 1662-9752, Vol. 679-680, 758-761 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this work, a 4H-SiC lateral PNP transistor fabricated in a high voltage NPN technology has been simulated and characterized. The possibility of fabricating a lateral PNP with a current gain larger than 1 has been investigated. Device and circuit level solutions have been performed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2011
Keyword
4H-SiC, NPN, lateral PNP, Sziklay configuration, SPICE model
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-35628 (URN)10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.679-680.758 (DOI)000291673500183 ()2-s2.0-79955083743 (Scopus ID)
Conference
8th European Conference on Silicon Carbide and Related Materials, Sundvolden Conf Ctr, Oslo, NORWAY, AUG 29-SEP 02, 2010
Funder
StandUp
Note

QC 20150624

Available from: 2011-07-04 Created: 2011-07-04 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
5. Lateral p-n-p Transistors and Complementary SiC Bipolar Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lateral p-n-p Transistors and Complementary SiC Bipolar Technology
2014 (English)In: IEEE Electron Device Letters, ISSN 0741-3106, E-ISSN 1558-0563, Vol. 35, no 4, 428-430 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Lateral p-n-p transistors and a complementary bipolar technology have been demonstrated for analog integrated circuits. Besides vertical n-p-n's, this technology provides lateral p-n-p's at the cost of one additional lithographic and dry etching step. Both devices share the same epitaxial layers and feature topside contacts to all terminals. The influence on p-n-p current gain of contact topology (circular versus rectangular), effective base width, base/emitter doping ratio, and temperature was studied in detail. In the range -40 degrees C to 300 degrees C, the current gain of the p-n-p transistor shows a maximum of similar to 37 around 0 degrees C and decreases to similar to 8 at 300 degrees C, whereas in the same range, the gain of n-p-n transistors exhibits a negative temperature coefficient.

Keyword
Bipolar junction transistor (BJT), silicon carbide (SiC), complementary bipolar, lateral PNP transistor, current gain temperature dependence, high and low temperature
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-144932 (URN)10.1109/LED.2014.2303395 (DOI)000333521700002 ()2-s2.0-84897916018 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research
Note

QC 20140508

Available from: 2014-05-08 Created: 2014-05-05 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
6. Design and Characterization of High-Temperature ECL-Based Bipolar Integrated Circuits in 4H-SiC
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design and Characterization of High-Temperature ECL-Based Bipolar Integrated Circuits in 4H-SiC
2012 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, ISSN 0018-9383, E-ISSN 1557-9646, Vol. 59, no 4, 1076-1083 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Operation up to 300 degrees C of low-voltage 4H-SiC n-p-n bipolar transistors and digital integrated circuits based on emitter-coupled logic is demonstrated. Stable noise margins of about 1 V are reported for a two-input OR-NOR gate operated on - 15 V supply voltage from 27 degrees C up to 300 degrees C. In the same temperature range, an oscillation frequency of about 2 MHz is also reported for a three-stage ring oscillator.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2012
Keyword
Bipolar junction transistor (BJT), emitter coupled logic (ECL), high-temperature integrated circuits (ICs), OR-NOR gate, silicon carbide (SiC)
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Information and Communication Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-72233 (URN)10.1109/TED.2011.2182514 (DOI)000302083800028 ()2-s2.0-84859210119 (Scopus ID)
Projects
SSF HOTSiC
Funder
StandUpSwedish Foundation for Strategic Research , RE10-0011
Note

QC 20150624

Available from: 2012-01-31 Created: 2012-01-31 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
7. 500 degrees C Bipolar Integrated OR/NOR Gate in 4H-SiC
Open this publication in new window or tab >>500 degrees C Bipolar Integrated OR/NOR Gate in 4H-SiC
2013 (English)In: IEEE Electron Device Letters, ISSN 0741-3106, E-ISSN 1558-0563, Vol. 34, no 9, 1091-1093 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Successful operation of low-voltage 4H-SiC n-p-n bipolar transistors and digital integrated circuits based on emitter coupled logic is reported from -40 degrees C to 500 degrees C. Nonmonotonous temperature dependence (previously predicted by simulations but now measured) was observed for the transistor current gain; in the range -40 degrees C - 300 degrees C it decreased when the temperature increased, while it increased in the range 300 degrees C-500 degrees C. Stable noise margins of similar to 1 V were measured for a 2-input OR/NOR gate operated on -15 V supply voltage from 0 degrees C to 500 degrees C for both OR and NOR output.

Keyword
Bipolar junction transistor (BJT), emitter coupled logic (ECL), high-temperature integrated circuits (ICs), OR/NOR gate, silicon carbide (SiC)
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Information and Communication Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-129618 (URN)10.1109/LED.2013.2272649 (DOI)000323982500006 ()2-s2.0-84883180257 (Scopus ID)
Projects
SSF HOTSiC
Funder
StandUpSwedish Foundation for Strategic Research , RE10-0011
Note

QC 20131004

Available from: 2013-10-04 Created: 2013-10-03 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
8. A 4H-SiC Bipolar Technology for High-Temperature Integrated Circuits
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A 4H-SiC Bipolar Technology for High-Temperature Integrated Circuits
2013 (English)In: Journal of Microelectronics and Electronic Packaging, ISSN 1551-4897, E-ISSN 1555-8037, Vol. 10, no 4, 155-162 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A 4H-SiC bipolar technology suitable for hightemperature integrated circuits is tested with two interconnect systems based on aluminum and platinum. Successful operation of low-voltage bipolar transistors and digital integrated circuits based on emitter coupled logic (ECL) is reported from 27°C up to 500°C for both the metallization systems. When operated on -15 V supply voltage, aluminum and platinum interconnect OR-NOR gates showed stable noise margins of about 1 V and asymmetric propagation delays of about 200 and 700 ns in the whole temperature range for both OR and NOR output. The performance of aluminum and platinum interconnects was evaluated by performing accelerated electromigration tests at 300°C with current density of about 1 MA/cm² on contact chains consisting of 10 integrated resistors. Although in both cases the contact chains failed after less than one hour, different failure mechanisms were observed for the two metallization systems: electromigration for the aluminum system and poor step coverage and via filling for the platinum system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Microelectronics and Packaging Society (IMAPS), 2013
Keyword
Silicon carbide (SiC), emitter coupled logic (ECL), high temperature integrated circuits (ICs), OR-NOR gate, bipolar junction transistor (BJT), aluminum metallization, platinum metallization
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-145366 (URN)
Conference
Hiten 2013
Note

QC 20140522

Available from: 2014-05-19 Created: 2014-05-19 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved

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