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Channel Characterization and WirelessCommunication Performance in Industrial Environments
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The demand for wireless communication systems in industry has grown in recent years. Industrial wireless communications open up a number of new possibilities for highly flexible and efficient automation solutions. However, a good part of the industry refuses to deploy wireless solutions products due to the high reliability requirements in industrial communications that are not achieved by actual wireless systems. Industrial environments have particular characteristics that differ from typical indoor environments such as office or residential environments. The metallic structure and building dimensions result in time dispersion in the received signal. Moreover, electrical motors, vehicles and repair work are sources of electromagnetic interference (EMI) that have direct implications on the performance of wireless communication links. These degradations can reduce the reliability of communications, increasingthe risk of material and personal incidents. Characterizing the sources of degradations in different industrial environments and improving the performance of wireless communication systems by implementing spatial diversity and EMI mitigation techniques are the main goals of this thesis work.

Industrial environments are generally considered to be environments with a significant number of metallic elements and EMI sources. However, with the penetration of wireless communication in industrial environments, we realize that not all industrial environments follow this rule of thumb. In fact, we find a wide range of industrial environments with diverse propagation characteristics and degradation sources. To improve the reliability of wireless communication systems in industrial environments, proper radio channel characterization is needed for each environment. This thesis explores a variety of industrial environments and attempts to characterize the sources of degradation by extracting representative channel parameters such as time dispersion, path loss and electromagnetic interference. The result of this characterization provides an industrial environment classification with respect to time dispersion and EMI levels, showing the diverse behavior of propagation channels in industry.

The performance of wireless systems in industrial environments can be improved by introducing diversity in the received signal. This can be accomplished by exploiting the spatial diversity offered when multiple antennas are employed at the transmitter with the possibility of using one or more antennas at the receiver. For maximum diversity gain, a proper separation between the different antennas is needed. However, this separation could be a limiting factor in industrial environments with confined spaces. This thesis investigates the implication of antenna separation on system performance and discusses the benefits of spatial diversity in industrial environments with high time dispersion conditions where multiple antennas with short antenna separations can be employed.

To ensure reliable wireless communication in industrial environments, all types of electromagnetic interference should be mitigated. The mitigation of EMI requires interference detection and subsequent interference suppression.This thesis looks at impulsive noise detection and suppression techniques for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) based on wide-band communication systems in AWGN and multi-path fading channels. For this,a receiver structure with cooperative detection and suppression blocks is proposed.This thesis also investigates the performance of the proposed receiver structure for diverse statistical properties of the transmitted signal and electromagnetic interference.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. , xiii, 81 p.
Series
TRITA-ICT-COS, ISSN 1653-6347 ; 14:02
National Category
Telecommunications
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-145158OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-145158DiVA: diva2:716937
Public defence
2014-06-04, Sal D, KTH - ICT, Isafjordsgatan 39, Kista, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20140520

Available from: 2014-05-20 Created: 2014-05-13 Last updated: 2014-05-20Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Characterization of electromagneticproperties in iron-mine production tunnels
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of electromagneticproperties in iron-mine production tunnels
2012 (English)In: Electronics Letters, ISSN 0013-5194, E-ISSN 1350-911X, Vol. 48, no 2, 62-63 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Modern underground mines require reliable wireless communication for transmitting voice data, operating surveillance cameras, and monitoring mining equipment such as heavy vehicles. The electromagnetic characteristics of mines therefore have to be considered when determining the type of wireless technology for such critical applications. In this reported work, measurements of radio interference levels, path loss, and multipath propagation are performed in the world's now largest iron ore mine, situated in Sweden, to determine a suitable wireless technology for this mine.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-144879 (URN)10.1049/el.2011.3133 (DOI)000299322500006 ()2-s2.0-84857306164 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20140520

Available from: 2014-04-30 Created: 2014-04-30 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
2. Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Characterization in Factory Automation Infrastructures
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Characterization in Factory Automation Infrastructures
2012 (English)In: IEEE transactions on electromagnetic compatibility (Print), ISSN 0018-9375, E-ISSN 1558-187X, Vol. 54, no 3, 708-711 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

 In recent years, industrial wireless applications have emerged rapidly. The use of short-range radio communication systems in factories increases the flexibility in industrial processes by reducing the use of cables. However, the technological challenges involved in wireless communication in industrial environments are not trivial; they result in disadvantages with respect to reliability and security because of electromagnetic interferences. To gain an understanding of the performance limits of these wireless applications, knowing the characteristics of these environments is essential. In this approach, amplitude probability distribution (APD) and rms delay spread measurements have been used to perform electromagnetic site surveys in three factory automation infrastructures.

 

Keyword
wireless communications, electromagnetic interference, industrial applications, amplitude probability distribution (APD), rms delay spread
National Category
Communication Systems
Research subject
SRA - ICT
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-48907 (URN)10.1109/TEMC.2012.2197753 (DOI)000305574300025 ()2-s2.0-84862602743 (Scopus ID)
Funder
ICT - The Next Generation
Note

QC 20120718

Available from: 2011-11-24 Created: 2011-11-24 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
3. Characterisation of highly absorbent and highly reflective radio wave propagation environments in industrial applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterisation of highly absorbent and highly reflective radio wave propagation environments in industrial applications
2012 (English)In: IET COMMUN, ISSN 1751-8628, Vol. 6, no 15, 2404-2412 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Experience has shown that Bluetooth, Wireless LAN (WLAN), Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT) and other Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) frequency band wireless technologies developed for office use, have encountered problems when used in critical industrial applications. The development of more reliable wireless solutions requires extensive knowledge of industrial environments with regards to both electromagnetic interference and wave propagation. This study presents the results of the analysis of two important classes of industrial environments having opposite characteristics, one being highly absorbent and the other being highly reflective, with respect to radio wave propagation. The analysis comprises both multipath and path loss characterisation. The results show that wireless solutions with different fundamental properties must be chosen for each of these environments to ensure high reliability. The conclusions of this work can be used as an important reference for further research in this area, as well as the design of new standards and guidelines for selecting wireless solutions in similar industrial environment classes.

Keyword
indoor channel, delay
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-123173 (URN)10.1049/iet-com.2012.0028 (DOI)000318221400018 ()
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Note

QC 130604

Available from: 2013-06-04 Created: 2013-06-04 Last updated: 2014-05-20Bibliographically approved
4. Challenges and conditionsfor wireless machine-to-machine communications in industrial environments
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Challenges and conditionsfor wireless machine-to-machine communications in industrial environments
2013 (English)In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 51, no 6, 187-192 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Wireless solutions are rapidly growing in machine-to-machine communications in industrial environments. These environments provide challenging conditions in terms of radio wave propagation as well as electromagnetic interference. In this article, results from the characterization of radio channel properties are summarized in order to provide some guidelines for the choice of wireless solutions in industrial environments. In conclusion, it is essential to know the sensitivity of industrial processes to time delay in data transfer. Furthermore, it is important to be aware of the radio interference environment and the manner in which different wireless technologies react upon interference. These steps will minimize the risk of unforeseen expensive disturbances in industrial processes.

 

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-144878 (URN)10.1109/MCOM.2013.6525614 (DOI)2-s2.0-84879103439 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20140520

Available from: 2014-04-30 Created: 2014-04-30 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
5. Antenna Cross Correlation and Ricean -Factor Measurements in Indoor Industrial Environments at 433 and 868 MHz
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Antenna Cross Correlation and Ricean -Factor Measurements in Indoor Industrial Environments at 433 and 868 MHz
Show others...
2013 (English)In: Wireless personal communications, ISSN 0929-6212, E-ISSN 1572-834X, Vol. 73, no 3, 587-593 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Ricean K-factor and antenna diversity properties for indoor industrial environments have been characterized for 433 and 868 MHz. The high amount of metallic structures gives a multipath environment that heavily differs from other environments e.g. indoor office environments. The results show that low correlation between receiving antennas can be achieved for shorter antenna distances than in other environments.

National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-139295 (URN)10.1007/s11277-013-1204-y (DOI)000327861700013 ()2-s2.0-84890552792 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20140108

Available from: 2014-01-08 Created: 2014-01-08 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
6. Detection and Suppression of Impulsive Noise in OFDM Receiver
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Detection and Suppression of Impulsive Noise in OFDM Receiver
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-145420 (URN)
Note

QS 2014

Available from: 2014-05-20 Created: 2014-05-20 Last updated: 2014-05-20Bibliographically approved
7. Sources of Disturbances on Wireless Communication in Industrial and Factory Environments
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sources of Disturbances on Wireless Communication in Industrial and Factory Environments
Show others...
2010 (English)In: 2010 Asia-Pacific Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility (APEMC), 2010, 281-284 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

 Electrical and mechanical machinery, highly reflective industrial facilities and co-existing communication systems are the major sources of disturbances in wireless industrial applications. Characterization of industrial environments is important for the development of standards, to assess current and future deployment of wireless technologies, and to provide systems integrators and end user with guidelines. In this paper some deductions from measurements carried out at three industrial environments using traditional electric field strength, amplitude probability distribution (APD) and multipath time dispersion measurements are presented. These measurements have given surprising and interesting results.

National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-48307 (URN)10.1109/APEMC.2010.5475862 (DOI)2-s2.0-77954979400 (Scopus ID)978-1-4244-5621-5 (ISBN)
Conference
2010 Asia-Pacific Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, APEMC 2010. Beijing. 12 April 2010 - 16 April 2010
Note
QC 20111117Available from: 2011-11-17 Created: 2011-11-17 Last updated: 2014-05-20Bibliographically approved
8. Simulation and Measurement of Electromagnetic Radiation Absorption in a Finished-product Warehouse
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simulation and Measurement of Electromagnetic Radiation Absorption in a Finished-product Warehouse
Show others...
2010 (English)In: 2010 IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY (EMC 2010), 2010, 881-884 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Several studies have characterized industrial environments as being highly reflective. In this paper, we provide the data obtained from electromagnetic field measurements performed at the warehouse of a paper mill. The data is also compared to simulated data. This data proves the existence of non-reflective and very high absorption industrial environments where wireless communication is impossible at certain frequencies. Furthermore, in such environment, radio performance cannot be improved by multiple antenna solutions such as MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) since multiple reflections are effectively absorbed.

Keyword
Electromagnetic radiation, absorption, wireless industrial communication technology, paper factory
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-48300 (URN)10.1109/ISEMC.2010.5711396 (DOI)000294962100161 ()2-s2.0-79952369524 (Scopus ID)978-1-4244-6305-3 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Ft Lauderdale, FL, JUL 25-30, 2010
Note
QC 20111121Available from: 2011-11-17 Created: 2011-11-17 Last updated: 2014-05-20Bibliographically approved
9. Industrial Indoor Environment Characterization: Propagation Models
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Industrial Indoor Environment Characterization: Propagation Models
Show others...
2011 (English)In: Proceedings of EMC Europe, 2011, 245-249 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Results of three years' field measurements on radio propagation in industrial environments have been analyzed using four propagation models: the Saleh-Valenzuela model, the two-cluster model, the indoor power delay profile model, and our more recent adjusted model. In this study, we used the results of measurements performed at a steel mill, a paper mill, and in a laboratory environment for three frequency bands (183-683 MHz, 1640-2140 MHz, and 2200-2700 MHz) and for line-of-sight and non-line-of-sight cases.

National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-48294 (URN)2-s2.0-83155191203 (Scopus ID)
Conference
EMC Europe 2011, York, UK, September 2011
Note

QC 20111121

Available from: 2011-11-17 Created: 2011-11-17 Last updated: 2014-05-20Bibliographically approved
10. Analysis of wireless communications in underground tunnels for industrial use
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of wireless communications in underground tunnels for industrial use
Show others...
2012 (English)In: IECON 2012 - 38th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, 2012, 3216-3220 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Wireless communication is expected to improve the safety and the productivity in underground tunnels for industrial use. However the multiple shapes and structures of tunnels affect wireless communication characteristics in terms of signal propagation which is significantly different from terrestrial environments. This paper presents comprehensive broadband measurements and simulations of multipath propagation and path loss in two underground environments. The results can be used in the development of new communication systems in tunnels that provide industrial services.

Series
IECON Proceedings (Industrial Electronics Conference)
Keyword
Broadband measurements, Industrial services, Industrial use, Path loss, Signal propagation, Terrestrial environments, Underground environment, Underground tunnels, Wireless communications
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-118403 (URN)10.1109/IECON.2012.6389383 (DOI)2-s2.0-84872926158 (Scopus ID)978-146732421-2 (ISBN)
Conference
38th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2012, 25 October 2012 through 28 October 2012, Montreal, QC
Note

QC 20130219

Available from: 2013-02-19 Created: 2013-02-18 Last updated: 2014-05-20Bibliographically approved
11. Impulsive Noise Detec-tion in OFDM Systems with PAPR Reduction
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impulsive Noise Detec-tion in OFDM Systems with PAPR Reduction
2014 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Impulsive noise is a major source of degradation in industrial communications. Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) is an extended technique used in many industrial communications, however the performance of OFDM systems is reduced under an impulsive noise source. To increase the system performance, impulsive noise detection and suppression techniques can be designed in the communication system. OFDM has high levels of peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR), thus PAPR reduction techniques, such as selected mapping (SLM), are implemented in OFDM systems. This paper proposes an impulsive noise detection exploiting the statistical properties of the OFDM envelope when applying SLM. The proposed detection technique increases the probability of detection and improves the BER of the communication system compared to other impulsive detection techniques.

Series
IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, ISSN 1077-4076 ; 6930962
Keyword
Impulsive noise, OFDM, PAPR, selected mapping(SEM), wireless communications, impulsive noise detection
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-145424 (URN)10.1109/EMCEurope.2014.6930962 (DOI)000364988600097 ()2-s2.0-84908673096 (Scopus ID)978-1-4799-3226-9 (ISBN)
Conference
2014 International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, EMC Europe 2014; Swedish Exhibition and Congress CentreGothenburg; Sweden; 1 September 2014 through 4 September 2014
Note

QC 20150611

QC 20151214

Available from: 2014-05-20 Created: 2014-05-20 Last updated: 2015-12-15Bibliographically approved

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